Fall 2016- Editor Celina Khaliq December 1, 2016

The Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang Theory has become the main evidence to how the universe was created. According to this theory, the universe was compacted into one tiny point 13.7 billion years ago and expanded enormously. The information and explanation involves mathematical theories and models. For example, the cosmic microwave background, which is the thermal radiation leftover from the recombination in the Big Bang's cosmology. More evidence and explanations include Hubble's Law and the abundance of light elements. Georges Lemaitre was the first to propose the expanding universe theory in 1927, and scientists have since then built on his ideas. In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that the galaxies are drifting apart from analyzing galactic redshifts. This evidence supports the hypothesis of the expanding universe. Once the cosmic microwave background was founded in 1965, it became a vital piece of evidence for the model. Since it is impossible to go back in time to see what happened, the physical laws of nature can be calculated to see the characteristics of the universe long ago in extreme density and temperature.


Big Bang Theory Explained
Big Bang Theory Explained


Original Author: Matt Williams
Republished: December 18 2015
Viewed and Reviewed by Celina Khaliq on December 1, 2016
This website is owned by Universe Today, and created by Fraser Cain. It was launched March 23, 1999 and contains articles on the latest space and astronomy news. It is fairly popular and is a good source to go to for news. It provides up to date information and has three million monthly readers. If you are interested or want to keep up with the latest astronomical stories and events, you should definitely check this website out.


Author: Jonathan Strickland
Last updated: June 18 2008
Viewed and Reviewed by Celina Khaliq on December 1, 2016
This website was created by Marshall Brain to explain how things in the universe work. It is jam packed with tons of information for when you are researching or learning something new. They have a ton of articles on everyday things. They are a good website to get general information from. They provide you with unbiased and reliable answers that are easy to understand. I would say that this is a reliable source because it is filled with tons of information and has nearly 30 million visits per month. They offer videos, have an app, and also have audio podcasts that you can listen to. If you are looking for explanations or a good website that has reliable information, this may be the site for you.


Author: unknown
Last Updated: unknown
Viewed and Reviewed by Celina Khaliq on December 1, 2016
This website may be independent and only provide a few pages, but it is filled with tons of information all about the Big Bang. It is a website strictly for learning all about the theory. It goes into detail about things like what redshifts are, the issues with the Big Bang Theory, and the background of the cosmic microwave. It also talks about multiple universes and what existed before the Big Bang. It provides you with a timeline of what happened after the Big Bang, minute by minute. This small website has an incredible amount of information and doesn't miss a single detail. So much information might lead to confusion, but this is definitely one of the best website sources to learn about the Big Bang. It is specifically made for you to learn about the theory and does just that. It is an extremely impressive website and would be good for any source.


Author: Chris LaRocco and Blair Rothstein
Last updated: Unknown
Viewed and Reviewed by Celina Khaliq on December 1, 2016
This website belongs to the University of Michigan, which already deems it as a reliable source. Other than that it is a small but very well written article that provides good detail and explains everything about the Big Bang Theory. It even has a small section for deep thoughts and a glossary to define some of the words they used. This article has valid information and is relatively easy to understand. This is a good trustworthy source to get valid information from.


Author: Unknown
Published: Unknown
Viewed and Reviewed by Celina Khaliq on December 1, 2016
This website is quite small and limited but has a lot of good points and information. It talks about what happens after the Big Bang, common misconceptions, and where God plays a role in the whole belief of the theory. It also gives you all of the evidence for why the Big Bang is the most plausible theory and other models and theories that might explain how the universe began. Overall it is a decent source for general information about the theory.

56538main_HUDF_330.jpgSpring 2012 - Editor: Christopher Roberts (5/21/12)

The Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang Theory is an attempt to explain how the universe came about. It is a cosmological explanation for the development and expansion of the universe. It has been tested and confirmed, hence the term theory.

Let's get this straight. A theory is not just a guess, as many uninformed people believe. A theory is a testable, and tested, concept used to explain a phenomenon. If a theory, or a part of a theory, is wrong then it is changed in order to be as accurate as possible. A theory is not a hunch, nor is it a hypothesis. So if anyone ever tells you "it's just a theory," ask for them to elaborate and see if they know the true meaning of a scientific theory. Be sure to tell them that gravity is just a theory as well.

[[http://ssscott.tripod.com/BigBang.html|Creation of a Cosmology]]

Space and time were created from one singularity. An explosion occurred in which subatomic particles were created. Mass was created, henceforth energy as well. This link is really detailed, and difficult to understand if you do not have prior knowledge on the subject. Even with some knowledge there is words you probably have not heard. It's educational and descriptive, giving the audience (people who want to learn about the big bang) a good idea about what happened at the beginning of time. The only somewhat contradicting thing I notice is that it says, "an ineffable explosion, trillions of degrees in temperature on any measurement scale, that was infinitely dense...". An explosion indicates a center in which everything exploded from, but the Big Bang Theory suggest space, itself, expanded equally in every direction.

[[http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/astronomy/bigbang.html|Talk Origins]]

Talk origins seems very reliable. It has links to back up what they say. It tells you anything and everything you need to know about The Big Bang. It's audience is people who are exploring the creation vs. evolution controversy. With a supported explanation of the beginning of time and space, I don't understand why anyone would believe that there is a God. I believe a reason why people may WANT to believe there is a God is because it gives them some sort of purpose or entitlement. Businesses, also known as churches, profit from people donating money to them because it's "the right thing" to do. You can read more about the controversy and many more subjects on TalkOrigins.org

[[http://www.lfrieling.com/univers.html|Our Finite and Boundless Universe]]

Stephen Hawking suggests, " in order for the "Big Bang" to work, the mathematics requires that the condition of the Universe at the beginning must have been finite and boundless." This concept seems contradicting at first but then he continues to explain the confusion. He targets people interested in the Big Bang and the assumptions that cosmologists, including Stephen Hawking himself, make. This is a reliable source, because the information is coming from Stephen Hawking who is an author and is regarded as one of the smartest theoretical physicists since Einstein.

[[http://www.astro.ucla.edu/~wright/cosmology_faq.html#BBevidence|Evidence for the Big Bang]]

This link is very educational and reliable simply because it is a .edu website. It's audience is people who want to go more in detail in the Big Bang by absorbing and analyzing the numerous amounts of evidence listed. It answers many fundamental and more specific questions about the Big Bang and other cosmological and astronomical ideas.

[[http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cosmological-argument/|The Cosmological Argument]]
Author: Reichenbach, Bruce
Last updated: Winter 2010

This link is obviously a reliable source; its a Stanford webpage. Everyone has contemplated this controversy. Some people believe the universe was either created, or it has always existed -- that is a false dichotomy. The audience is generally everyone. Everyone has been interested at least one time in our origins. Some people are raised to believe in some omnipotent sky man, also known as "God." Of those people, some decide to stick with their family's traditional values and beliefs, and some decide to question their beliefs. What? When? Where? Why? How? Some, decide to be skeptics and logical.

Spring 2011- Editor: Carla Mixon

The Big Bang Theory

Scientists have been seeking out answers through observation and experimentation for centuries. The Big Bang theory represents for some people the "new birth" of the universe and everything within started to form in one way or another. According to research this explosion took place 13.7 billion years ago. In addition, Edwin Hubble's scientific work represents the human endeavor to discover truths about the world around us. Observation of the earth expanding has taken sides with the mysterious forces that supposedly erupted and caused the universe to begin growing and has not stopped since. This idea has been the subject of interest for many scientist, cosmologist and astronomers that continue to study the universe. These scientists continue to provide strong evidence to refine the Big Bang theory. The following links provide a brief review of additional information that I found on this topic.


I found this link attached to the www.allaboutscience.org website. I felt as a believer of God and from the spiritual perspective I couldn’t leave this out. In this passage it explains that in the beginning there was nothing but the spirit of God and it was Him who spoke things into existence, and how He set light over darkness. He was the creator of all things and there is none before Him and none after Him. I few things are questionable but I felt to include this link

This article gives a broad, yet enlightening background on the misconception of the Big Bang Theory. Its explains that our concept of this theory should be viewed as an expansion of the universe not an explosion. The majority of these theories come from astronomers and cosmologist, each using different techniques. Hubble’s observations are used as well to make estimates on how old the universe is. Lastly, discusses the problems with the big bang theory and how it conflicts with other scientist, including Einstein's, point of view

This article gives an introduction, just like others, on how the big bang started itself, the age of the universe, and the synthesis of the first atoms. Gives a not so complicated overview on atoms and composite particles. They explain in this article the age of the universe with calculations using distance and velocity .

This,I believe, is the easiest link to view regarding the Big Bang Theory. Its fun because its easy to read and basic like your ABC’s. This links answers the basic questions for basic people who do not want to go in depth. Some reasoning they talk about are the big bang vs. God…What do you tell your children….and more.

Here below is from another student:
This web site contains plenty of useful information on the Big Bang theory. The information on this web site follows a clear outline that makes it easy for the reader to follow. The site begins with a brief definition on the subject followed by theoretical support and observational evidences supporting Big Bang theory. The accuracy of the information that was taken from multiple writers and editors is up- to- date and was last revised March of 2009. Overall, the website provides clear information on the Big Bang theory making this and excellent source for any high school or college student to use for research on this topic.

The following web site contains up-to-date news articles on science-research. I found this site easy to navigate through and was able to find several different articles on Big Bang. For example: articles on Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Shape of the Universe, Dark Matter, and Black Holes. The information in these articles seems to be consistent with the topic and not difficult to read. The writer/editor Dan and Michele Hogan created this web site December of 1995 and are still current. This web site is a great source for the latest research news that can benefit any student or person of any grade level.


I found this web site to be an excellent source of accurate information on the topic of Big Bang. The introduction begins with the 1929 discovery by Edwin Hubble of the Universe that was expanding at enormous speed, followed by information on Background Radiation, Inflation, and Dark Energy. In addition, the page also includes information on the two missions Nasa has launched to study the Cosmic Background Radiation. Though I was not able to locate an author for this page, the information is up-to-date. The wording on this page is clear and easy to follow therefore, it is not limited to a high school or college audience.

Talk Science

This web site is devoted to the discussion and debate of biological and physical origins. The web site presents a collection of articles and essays regarding several different topics. Authors Bjorn Feuerbacher and Ryan Scranton posted an essay on Evidence for the Big Bang January of 2006. The outline of this paper is the first thing that appears on the page, this makes it easy for the reader to navigate through the information or the option to return to any subject regarding the topic. The subjects that are addressed are; What is the Big Bang theory, Evidence, Problems and Objections, Alternative Cosmological models, and Open Questions. Even though this paper posted four years ago the accuracy of information is current. The authors provide detail information on every subject regarding this topic. However, the wording can be technical but, not impossible for a high school or college student to understand.

Crystal Links

Information on this web site is vague. The page opens to a picture of a time line of the Big Bang theory. The information is accurate but, it lacks detail compared to other web sites. For this reason I would not recommend this website to be used as the only source of information for a high school or college student researching this topic. On the other hand, the information on this site can be used to introduce the topic at an elementary level. At the same time the page does include other links to topics relating to Big Bang. Overall, the wording used is clear and easy to follow however, I could not find and author to this page.

Page Created by Lucas Carter

The Big Bang Theory

The Big Bang Theory is the idea that at one point in time, all of the matter in space was contained at one particular place. Then, there was an explosion of sorts, that sent all the matter in different directions at different speeds. This theory originated from Edwin Hubble's observations, which showed that the universe was constantly expanding. He was able to calculate the distance of some planets along with their velocities, and was able to find that they were all in the same place approximately 13 billion years ago, and this is when most scientists believe that the Big Bang occurred.

All About Science
While this website doesn't give a clear and concise idea as to what the Big Bang actually was, it does provide a section that addresses a couple misconceptions about the Big Bang theory and also has a section with a clear list of evidence supporting the theory. Also, in it's attempt to describe what the Big Bang was, it explains many scientific terms with simpler explanations; showing that it is probably written for a high school audience. The page itself contains multiple sources and links, and seems to be pretty reliable. While the page may be approximately 7 years old, it still seems up to date with our current understanding on the subject.

Big Bang Theory
This page opens with a nice introduction that leads into a small description as to what the Big Bang was, followed by an explanation as to how the theory was first developed. Afterwards, they spend a great deal of time explaining the aftermath of the bang. While I found this part interesting, I would have liked to see more about the actual Big Bang itself instead of its aftermath. They made the website relatively easy to understand by not using too much complex scientific language, and providing a glossary with any hard words they included. Though they did have some complex concepts in their discussion of atoms, leading me to believe it was designed for high school students. Though, the website does state that the universe was created 15 billion years ago when almost all other sources say it started about 13.7 billion years ago, so accuracy might be an issue. The ideas are expressed clearly, and though there is no given year in which this was posted, time it doesn't seem out of date at all.

How Stuff Works
I found this page to be extremely helpful with descriptive but simple explanations about the theory. It begins with an introduction addressing both the importance of this theory as well as a few misconceptions about the theory itself and what it attempts to explain. The next section contains an easy to understand summary of what the Big Bang Theory is. It provides a few images that help the reader get an even clearer sense of the ideas the page is explaining. Further sections of the page go onto explain how the Big Bang Theory was developed, what happened right after the Bang, and then they discuss some problems that skeptics have with the theory. While there's a ton of information jammed in this page, they make it easy to navigate by dividing it into several sections. Further on in the page they do use some scientific language as well as a few formula's. So it's probably designed for someone with about a high school education and a basic understanding of scientific terms. The page is part of a well known website so it seems to be a reliable source, and the website it's on is modern and updated often. The sources used on the page are recent, so it seems very up to date.

Science and Reason
The site itself is relatively bland because it consists of basically a wall of text with a few tables thrown in. Despite this, it is a good site if you're interested in a lot of the science and laws that are actually involved in proving the Big Bang Theory, as opposed to discussing the theory itself. However, it may not be a good site to use for students who are not familiar with many scientific laws or formulas because it uses a lot of them and it assumes you already know a lot of the basic concepts as well as a few that don't seem very basic. It seems to be geared more towards higher level college students and above. The page itself is huge and while he has divided it up into a few sections, even the sections themselves are huge. So navigating through the page may prove to be difficult. He uses several good sources and seems to have a really good understanding of the ideas, so reliability shouldn't be an issue. The page was made in 2005 so the information in it should be up to date.

This page is pretty short and doesn't do much in depth explaining. It focuses on what happened a few seconds after the Big Bang actually occurred. However, it does give a very clear and easily understandable explanation of what the theory actually is. So, if you're more interested in how the Big Bang spurred the expansion of the universe as opposed to what the actual Bang was, then this is a good site that gives you a short but simple explanation. The page is short and easy to navigate through and it doesn't use any hard to understand concepts. So even though it is located on a university website, it seems to be directed toward high school students. Due to the fact that it is on a university website, it seems like it's a reliable and accurate site. However, since it 15 years old, it may be just a little out of date.