Fall 2016
Editor: Kaitlynn Meyer

Supernovas

supernova-head.jpgSource: http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/219746-why-stars-explode-creating-the-universe-as-we-know-it
Supernovas are massive explosions that happen when a star dies, and they are much bigger than our own Sun. There are two primary ways a Supernova can be formed: Type 1a and Type 2. Type 1a starts with a star like sun and then expands to a red giant. The red giant will then shed its outer layer and cools down, it will then contract to a white dwarf. The white dwarf will then start taking the mass from a binary partner and if it passes 1.4 solar masses (hyperphysics.com) then it will suddenly explode into a Type 1a. Type 2 supernovas usually start with massive stars that are >8 solar masses (hyperphysics.com) and will then expand to a red giant, which the core would then collapse on itself to produce the Type 2 Supernova, or the massive star will shed its outer layers and turn into a blue compact star and then the core will collapse on itself and produce a Type 2 Supernova. So therefore, a Type 1a needs a companion star to turn into a Supernova, and a Type 2 can explode all by its lonesome.

NAME OF WEBSITE: NASA Space Place
URL: http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/dr-marc-space/en/#/review/dr-marc-space/supernovas.html
AUTHOR: Dr. Marc Rayman
-NASA Space Place seems to be maintained by NASA official Kristen Erickson and Webmaster Nancy Leon. I would also believe this site and this specific article to be trustworthy because it is an official NASA website and the URL includes a .gov.
OVERVIEW: This site seems to be a collaboration between NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and International Technology and Engineering Education Association. The website is pretty basic with the name at the top and a NASA Science Logo right next to it. There is a search bar, and a button that allows you to change it to Spanish. There are also 6 links that take you to different subjects. These links are: Earth, Sun, Solar System, Universe, Science and Tech, and Educators.
LAST UPDATED: December 1, 2016
DATE REVIEWED: December 7, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Kaitlynn Meyer
ACCURACY: The information in this entire website seems accurate and up to date. The article I have included from Dr. Marc Rayman also seems up to date and accurate because he talks about if there are any Supernovas getting ready to form now. The updated date was a few days ago, and it is a NASA site, so I would hope they would update it and keep it as accurate as possible.
READABILITY AND CLARITY: I think the audience is for anyone who wants to learn about Supernovas and other things about space. I also think it's good for kids, this link is actually from questions Dr. Mark Rayman answered from Space Place partner museums and libraries. It is written appropriately for those who view it. It is also easy to read according to the Flesch Reading Ease Scale.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It is very easy to click around the site and find out more. There are more pages beyond the home page with quick links to the different subjects. The links lead to internal pages that have questions that they answer for you, craft ideas, games, activities, and even different media.
supernova_cygnusloop.jpg

NAME OF WEBSITE: Quatr.us
URL: http://quatr.us/physics/space/supernova.htm
AUTHOR: Karen Eva Carr PhD
-This website seems to be run by Professor Carr from Portland State University. She keeps up this website by donations and sponsors. This website seems to trustworthy, but I thought it was strange when I found this article about Supernovas and other articles about space because she teaches classics and archeology. Nevertheless, the article was there, and she is a professor.
OVERVIEW: The site is kind of messy, and hard to navigate.There are a ton of links to the right of the page that are separated by places. There is a search bar at the top. There are a ton of questions that are answered here and all kinds of information can be found on this website.
LAST UPDATED: December 4, 2016
DATE REVIEWED: December 6, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Kaitlynn Meyer
ACCURACY: The information seems to be accurate and up to date. The facts all look true compared to other reliable sources and texts.
READABILITY AND CLARITY: I believe the audience is anyone who is wondering what a supernova, it is run by a professor, so a lot of college students have probably seen this website and this page in particular. I believe it is written appropriately for those who will be viewing it. It is also easy to read according to the Flesch Reading Ease Scale.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: The website seems kind of hard to navigate. Although, it is nice to have the search bar because then you can just put in what you are looking for and it should pop up. All the links lead to internal pages that have questions she has personally written.
supernova2.jpg
Supernova from space
(thanks to NASA and the Hubble Telescope)

NAME OF WEBSITE: Inside Higher Ed
URL: https://academicminute.org/2016/11/shawn-bishop-tu-munchen-supernova-ashes-and-an-extinction-event/
AUTHOR: David Hopper
-This site is an independent journalism organization and is owned by three founders, individual investors, and Quad Partners. The information seems trustworthy because it is a transcript of a professor from the Technical University of Munich named Shawn Bishop. He also has a PhD in experimental nuclear astrophysics, so I would assume he knows what he is talking about.
OVERVIEW: The site seems pretty straight forward, and has a ton on links on the top and side for things like social media, or wanting to contact them. The purpose of this site seems to be helping people thrive in their jobs and even finding a new one for them. It's an online source for news, opinions, and jobs for higher education.
LAST UPDATED: Unknown
DATE REVIEWED: December 7, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Kaitlynn Meyer
ACCURACY: The information seems accurate and up to date given the article was posted November 15, 2016. There are no facts that contradict information from other reliable sources or texts.
READABILITY AND CLARITY: The audience seems to be those in higher education. I think the transcript is written appropriately for those in higher education. According to the Flesch Reading Ease Scale it is pretty hard to read, but that makes sense given it is meant for higher education students and educators.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: The website seems really easy to navigate. The search bar is good to have, and the different links for News, Opinion, Surveys, Webinars, and Jobs is nice because you can just click what you want to look at.

NAME OF WEBSITE: EarthSky
URL: http://earthsky.org/space/supernovae-and-ultra-diffuse-galaxies
AUTHOR: Deborah Byrd
-This site it maintained by a small team of people, but the Editor-in-chief is Deborah Byrd who is also behind the award winning radio series EarthSky: A Clear Voice for Science. Her .org website was created in 1994. She also has won a ton of awards, and got an asteroid named after her. I believe this site is trustworthy.
OVERVIEW: The site seems to be relatively simple, and well put together. There are a ton of links going to different things like: Tonight, Space, Earth, Human World, Videos, Stargaze, About, Store, and Today's Image. Its purpose is all space related things, and I think to answer questions an everyday person may wonder.
LAST UPDATED: UNKNOWN
DATE REVIEWED: December 7, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Kaitlynn Meyer
ACCURACY: The information seems accurate and up to date on both this article and the entire website. They seem to post something everyday. There are no facts that I noticed that contradicted anything from another reliable source or text.
READABILITY AND CLARITY: The audience seems like it could be wide range of people from students, to people who are just fascinated by all things space. I think the article is written appropriately for those it was intended for. According to Flesch Reading Ease Scale it is just a little bit harder to read than normal.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It is easy to find out more information. There are more pages beyond the home page and they all seem to be internal and written by the staff that work on the website.

NAME OF WEBSITE: Stanford | News
URL: http://news.stanford.edu/2016/11/09/stanford-solar-physicist-unlocks-easier-way-observe-peculiar-particles-reveal-inner-workings-sun/
AUTHOR: Taylor Kubota
-This site is maintained by Stanford University. I would say it is trustworthy.
OVERVIEW: The site is very simple, and it's purpose is for journalists to post stories for everyone to read. All kinds of information can be found here on all different kinds of topics. All papers written about Stanford.
LAST UPDATED: Unknown, article posted on November 9, 2016
DATE REVIEWED: December 7, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Kaitlynn Meyer
ACCURACY: The information all seems accurate and up to date. They post everyday on varying topics. There are no facts that I already knew that contradicted anything from another reliable source or text.
READABILITY AND CLARITY: The audience is probably for a lot of the Stanford students, and anyone else who looks around for news articles. I think the article is written appropriately for those it was intended for. According to Flesch Reading Ease Scale it is a pretty hard read.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It is super easy to find more information. The home page has a ton of new articles on it, and when you hit the link for Find Stories, it takes you to a page with a ton of articles all in categories so it is easy to find what you are looking for. There is also a search bar, which is super handy when looking for something specific. All the pages are internal and the stories are internal as well.
neutrinos_news-795x512.jpg
*Workers maintain the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector in Hida, Japan. It is said that neutrinos can help find out more information about supernovas. (Source: Stanford | News)




external image supnovform.jpg


Types of supernovas courtesy of:
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/snovcn.html
Author(s):
Cowen, Perlmutter ,Chaisson & McMillan, Carroll & Ostlie
Date of published: Unknown
Accuracy: Great site for Astrophysics
Readability and Clarity: This site shows graphs and calculations of a typical supernova.

Summary: An exploding star.

When the star's life is almost at an end, due to eating up all of its mass and nothing is left to sustain itself, it explodes. It eats the innards of a solar neighbor for fuel. When nothing is left for it to consume, it collapses in on itself and then explodes outwards in a death that outshines other huge stars.

For about 10 billion years the supernova radiates the same or even more energy as the sun produces.



How Supernovas Form:


Watch Awesome Supernova Videos
Watch Awesome Supernova Videos
Image and summary By: NASA

A white dwarf's strong gravitational pull siphons matter from a nearby star. If the white dwarf becomes too massive to support its own weight, it will collapse on itself and then explode into a supernova.
NAME OF WEBSITE: How Stuff Works: Science
http://science.howstuffworks.com/supernova.htm
AUTHOR: Laurie L. Dove
DATE REVIEWED: May,6,2014
DATE PUBLISHED: September, 29, 2011
ACCURACY: Very accurate on what supernovas are and how they form.
READABILITY and CLARITY: Great sources on supernovas.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: Very easy


Supernova recent news:

http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/science-superluminous-supernova-ps110afx-01880.html
PS1-10afx
Some astronomers believe that this a was a completely new type of supernova and others say that it's a normal Type Ia supernova magnified by a gravitational lens in the form of a massive object. This unusually bright supernova was discovered in 2010.


Mystery Solved! Super-Bright Supernova Was Magnified by Cosmic Lens
Mystery Solved! Super-Bright Supernova Was Magnified by Cosmic Lens

This image, taken with the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope, shows the field before the supernova PS1-10afx. Image credit: Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe / CFHT. The right inset shows PS1-10afx. Image credit: R. Chornock et al




9 billion light-years from Earth. 1 light-year = 5,878,499,810,000 miles 9 billion light-years = 9,000,000,000 x (5,878,499,810,000) miles.
The reality is PS1-10afx is 9 billion light-years away from earth and we are now finally seeing it.

AUTHOR: Robert M. Quimby
DATE OF PUBLICATION: April 25, 2014
REVIEWED BY:: Kerwin Garcia
DATE REVIEWED: May 13, 2014
ACCURACY: Very Informal.
READABILITY and CLARITY: This article stated informal discoveries on the universe stating "Although astronomers suggested PS1-10afx was a normal Type Ia supernova magnified by a gravitational lens in the form of a massive object, some believe it evolved too fast. Its host galaxy is too big, and it was too red. These anomalies led some astronomers to conclude that PS1-10afx was a completely new type of supernova."

Magnification of the supernova PS1-10afx by a gravitational lensing. Image credit: Aya Tsuboi / Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe.
Magnification of the supernova PS1-10afx by a gravitational lensing. Image credit: Aya Tsuboi / Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe.

Magnification of the supernova PS1-10afx by a gravitational lens. Image credit: Aya Tsuboi / Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe.


Explaining PS1-10afx:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDbqAaMJu98
AUTHOR: Surhud More
DATE PUBLISHED: April 22, 2013
REVIEWED BY: Kerwin Garcia
DATE REVIEWED: May 13, 2014
ACCURACY: Up to date on the news
READABILITY AND CLARITY: This compares the luminosity of SN2011-fe and PS1-10afx


Interesting Videos:


Our sun does not have enough mass for a supernova, but here is what will happen to it when it dies:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHin6lk4KqU
AUTHOR: Mitchell Moffit and Gregory Brown on AsapSCIENCE YouTube
DATE PUBLISHED: October 8, 2013
REVIEWED BY: Kerwin Garcia
DATE REVIEWED: May 13, 2014
ACCURACY: This video shows what Earth will look like in 5 billion years and what will happen to the sun.
READABILITY AND CLARITY: 10/10 YouTube video.

My Opinion:

Most of the universe is already dead. Life of a star 5 billion years. Anything farther away will be vaporized by their sun or sucked into a black hole. So any life out there would need to exceed the speed of light to get here.

Facts to share:

AUTHOR: Mitchell Moffit and Gregory Brown
DATE PUBLISHED: December 11, 2013
REVIEWED BY: Kerwin Garcia
DATE REVIEWED: May 13, 2014
ACCURACY: Facts of life, dust particle, how small we can be.
READABILITY AND CLARITY: 10/10 YouTube Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-pziElSiJgc



Spring 2013 Editor Eduardo Rangel
Edited By: Caitlin Macey, Fall 2012
Fall 2011 editor Samantha Harris
Fall 2010 editor Joey Delano
By: Cayla Watson
Edited by: Derek Kapell






Crab Supernova Remnant (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/snovcn.html)
Crab Supernova Remnant (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/snovcn.html)
Cassiopeia A (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/snovcn.html)
Cassiopeia A (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/astro/snovcn.html)





A supernova (pluralized supernovae) is an exploding star. When a supernova explodes, it expels an enormous cloud of gas, dust, and radiation out into space. A supernova can exceed the brightness of our sun by over a billion and can emit more radiation in the time of its explosion than the sun will in its entire life span. This page will give you multiple resources for learning more about supernovae.





What Are Supernovae?
http://planetfacts.org/supernova/

Author: Unknown
Date Viewed: November 29, 2012
Last Revision: Unknown
Summary: This page contains basic information on what a supernova is, different types of supernovae, how astronomers studied them and the after effects of a supernova.
Readability: Easy


"The King of Exploding Stars"

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2007/may/08/spaceexploration.weekendmagazinespacesection

Author: James Randerson
Date Read: December 5, 2010
Last Revision on July 7, 2008
Summary: This web page gives a lot of information about the brightest supernova ever recorded, the SN 2006gy supernova was 100 times brighter than the typical supernova. Also, this page gives some information about a star close to us that is nearing the end of its life.



Supernova Remnants

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/objects/supernova_remnants.html

Author: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Date Read: December 5, 2010
Last Revision: March 2011
Summary: This link goes into great detail about remnants that supernovae leave behind. It tells us three different types of remnants such as: Cygnus Loop X-rays, Crab Nebula X-Rays, and Composite Remnants. The website also tells us why the Supernova remnants are important to us, because if there wasn't any supernova remnants there wouldn't be a Sun, or an Earth. Remnants are also responsible for the formation of many heavy elements, such as gold.



More Supernovae Information

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/science/objects/supernovae1.html

Author: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Date Read: December 5, 2010
Last Revision: February 3, 2010
Summary: This link goes into deeper detail about the types of supernovae. It also contains information about how, and why Supernovae explode. This website is very helpful because it gives you a little bit of information about everything, and it also explains what happens to the leftovers of the dead star.



Cosmic Doom

http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/0108supernova.html

Author: NASA: Bill Steigerwald
Date Read: December 5, 2010
Last Revision: February 23, 2008
Summary: This link gives you information on whether or not our planet, Earth, can be destroyed by a Supernova. It also tells you how close the Supernova would have to be in order to destroy our planet. The website also says how long it would take for the radiation to get here if a Supernova exploded really close to us.



Life of a Star

http://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/home/F_Supernova.html

Author: NASA, Author is unknown.
Date Read: December 5, 2010
Last Revision: December 9, 2007
Summary: This website is a very simple depiction of the life of a star using pictures, from birth to death and then on to a black hole.

National Geographic

http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/universe/supernovae-article/

Overview: This website has a clear and concise depiction of supernovae and how they come to be. The page takes you through the end of a star's life and includes information on white dwarfs and black holes.
Author: Unknown
Last Revision: Unknown
Date Viewed: November 4, 2011
Reviewed By: Samantha Harris
Readability: Easy

Latest Supernovae
http://www.rochesterastronomy.org/supernova.html#2009ip

Overview: This page contains information on the currently observable supernovae with photographs of each one. The location of each supernovae, discovery date, and its last report of brightness are all available.
Author: Unknown
Last Revision: November 28, 2012
Date Viewed: November 29, 2012
Reviewed By: Caithlin Macey
Readability: Moderate to Advanced

National Geographic
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/photos/supernovae-gallery/#/supernova-chaos-remnant_1239_600x450.jpg
Overview: This link goes to the National Geographic Gallery where there are numerous pictures of supernovae in various stages of their explosions. Each photo is provided with an explanation as to what is happening along with factual information about the specific supernova mentioned.
Author: Unknown
Last Updated: Unknown
Date Viewed: November 29, 2012
Reviewed By: Caithlin Macey
Readability: Easy

Chandra X-Ray Observations
http://chandra.harvard.edu/xray_sources/supernovas.html
Overview: This site gives thorough explanations on the differences between three different kinds of supernovae: core collapse supernovae, thermonuclear supernovae, and pair-instability supernovae.
Author: Unknown
Last Updated: October 11, 2012
Date Viewed: November 29, 2012
Viewed By: Caithlin Macey
Readability: Moderate

Name of Site: Universe Today
http://www.universetoday.com/100101/bright-new-supernova-shines-in-southern-skies/
New supernova 2013aa, discovered by Stu Parker on February 13, 2013, is southwest of the spiral galaxy NGC 5643 in the southern constellation Lupus.
New supernova 2013aa, discovered by Stu Parker on February 13, 2013, is southwest of the spiral galaxy NGC 5643 in the southern constellation Lupus.

Overview: This page describes a supernova that happened during February 2013. It describes the location and time when the visibility of the supernovae would be the best. It also describes the actual supernovae and its characteristics.
Author: Bob King
Last Updated: February 19, 2013
Date Reviewed: May 13, 2013
Reviewed By: Eduardo Rangel
Accuracy: The article has relevant information that describes the supernovae. Some of the information is about how bright the explosion was seen; it was 5 billion times brighter than that of the sun. It also gives more information about the location of where to find the explosion in the night sky. The individual that maintains Universe Today is Fraser Cain. He received his education from North Island College, University of British Columbia, and G.P. Vanier. Cain is also the co-host of Astronomy Cast. He always posts the newest information that relates to astronomy.
Readability and Clarity: This information can be useful for students that want to know about one of the brightest and most recent supernovas. The text scored a 57.8 on the Flesch Reading Ease Scale meaning it is around the average complexity of the text. They also clearly state the description of the supernovae and the location.
Ease of Navigation: The website has some other internal tabs and seems easy to navigate. All the tabs are labeled to let the visitor know where it will take them.


Name of Site: Physics World
http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2013/apr/02/new-class-of-mini-supernovae-discovered
Artistic illustration of what a mini supernovae would look like.
Artistic illustration of what a mini supernovae would look like.

Overview: This web page describes the discovery of a new class of mini supernovas. It describes how there were previously two types of supernovas, but they recently found evidence to support that there is a new class of these star deaths. It gives information on the size of these new discoveries and also about how these scientists need to be careful with their observations.
Author: Ian Randal
Last Updated: April 2, 2013
Date Reviewed: May 13, 2013
Reviewed By: Eduardo Rangel
Accuracy: Physics World is a website from the Institute of Physics, which is a leading scientific society. Their goal is to advance physics education, research and application. This article gives valuable information about the new classification and how it was discovered. It also describes how there needs to be careful consideration in whether to actually classify a supernova as a mini supernova. It also goes over the chances of survival the star has.
Readability and Clarity: This information can be useful for anyone that wants to know about the different classification of supernovas. The text scored a 35.9 on the Flesch Reading Ease Reading Scale meaning that the text is more complex to understand.
Ease of Navigation: The web page itself seems relatively easy to navigate and only requires some reading to understand where the tabs will take you. There were no real links except for the tabs that take you to other articles.