Stephen Hawking's Theory of Everything

By David Kirchik


Why are we here and where did we come from? Questions Hawking's asked himself after he was diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease. In 1965 attending lectures by Roger Penrose, a brilliant mathematician, had given Hawking a glimpse and the force to strive for the answer to, how and why we are here?

Thus, Stephen Hawking’s Theory of Everything or TOE, a theory to which will explain how our cosmos began to be. But one obstacle has constantly stood in the way, gravity. To understand this one must first know that Einstein showed that an object, a star for instance due to it's large mass, has a lot of gravity. This amount of gravity the star has created a dimple in space, as objects pass through this dimple the stars gravity created makes the object bend and curve with the dimple in space the star's gravity created. These objects, planets in our own solar system orbit the star in an elliptical pattern following the dimple in space, very slowly spiraling closer to the star. It will be billions of years before our planet hits the sun.

The gravity of Earth also bends space around it. What we believe to feel as gravity, is in fact the strong curvature of space around our planet. When astronauts take off and break the gravity of Earth and escape to space to orbit our planet, the shuttle is breaking away from the curvature of space.

Also, when a star collapses below a certain critical radius it would inevitably develop into a singularity, a Black Hole. A singularity can bend light, rip objects with mass apart on an atomic level, including bits of space which could disappear into the singularity. If bits of space could be devoured by a singularity, then, perhaps everything in the universe originally appeared out of one, Hawking theorized.

In what was Hawking's PHD thesis, he made huge breakthrough, he proved that everything in the universe had to have appeared from a tiny single point. He could prove the universe started from a tiny single point, but not how, or why. The scientific community saw it as if this is true, than it was a miracle - the moment of creation and the work of God. In order to answer the question of how or why, he had to remove Einsteins theory of relativity from his equations. Truth is, the Theory of Relativity does not apply to the Big Bang.

Hawking still believe that the answer lies within knowing how singularities work, Hawking's had to dive to Quantum mechanics, the study of atoms and quarks. Little things. Atoms, if an atom's nucleus was the size of a marble its electron would be two miles away. On a quantum scale, that is a huge distance! To have millions of atoms whirling about with the electrons being so far from their nucleus's the odds of the electron hitting another nucleus has good odds. Common sense says that one object fired off can only hit another object, in example a paint ball being fired from a paintball gun at a target, the paintball will only hit that target. In the case of atoms, common sense does not apply, that one fired paintball, can hit three targets, or five, or more.

Hawking's knowing about atoms, applied to his Theory of Everything, had to bring Einstein's Theory of Relativity and reverse it around removing common sense, and his knowledge of atoms, together in harmony - Einstein's Theory of Relativity and its soft collage of planets and stars, with the irrationality unpredictable wildness of the atom. Atoms exist in space where they shouldn't. Space, a void, can never have zero mass. So Hawking asked himself what happens when an Atom meets a black hole in space.

Hawking came up with his Radiation Theory. A pair of particles are created, lasting just a nano-second, opposites which cannot exist without the other. Hawking realized that the positively charged particle, a particle with mass would have enough energy to escape the black hole, while the negatively charged particle, a particle with negative mass, gets swallowed into the black hole, causing something amazing, the black hole decreases in size due to the negative mass the particle carries. Around a black hole is a "thermal glow" seen as radiation caused by the positively charged particles flying away from it while the negative mass particles are being swallowed up by the black hole, the black hole begins to shrink. As the black hole begins shrinking, getting hotter, gravity gets stronger, eventually the black hole will become so small, so hot it explodes. From this explosion it is theorized the amount of mass and heat from this event creates the necessary "building blocks" to allow galaxies to form.

Stars are destroyed around a black hole, light cannot escape a black hole, space is devoured by black holes, and yet at the same time, stars are formed around black holes due to the chaos the bring.

Knowing all this Hawking's uses to explain how everything came to be, from the very tiny, a singularity.

Hawking's today, with a team of his students in his classes, are trying to find the answer of everything, how and why we are here, not as living beings, but as why and how the universe came to be. By using the tiny, Quantum Mechanics and singularities - black holes to explain the Big Bang, has proved to be harder than previously thought. All over Hawkings theories have been caused and led by his life's work, the Theory of Everything.

In every attempt to answer the Theory of Everything, using Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Theory, to explain how the Universe was once infinity tiny with an infinite amount of gravity as small as the size of an Atom, peering back in time 13.7 billion years. Even though the universe at one time was once tiny, containing the amount of energy and gravity it contained was vast, and getting the theory of the tiny to explain the level of gravity has proved to be impossible to recently. In Hawking's Theory of Everything, the Universe, young, and tiny, the size of an atom, sparkling so bright, carried with in it trillions of atoms carrying the four forces.
In current mainstream physics, The Theory of Everything is shown to unify the four fundamental interactions of nature which are; Gravity, Strong Nuclear Force, Weak Nuclear Force, and Electromagnetic Force.

Since the discover of the left over heat energy from the Big Bang discovered by satellite WMAP, and noticing how the variations in heat change in a few millionths of a degree show that there is more matter in space in areas than there is in others. Bringing back to light and showing that Hawking's theory of the tiny (Theory of Everything), has merit to a degree. The Big Bang's left over heat radiation with more mass in some areas than others supports Hawking's reasoning. WMAP, has taken a snapshot of the universe showing that Hawking's Theory of Everything is right, the Universe was first the size of an Atom. WMAP's snapshot shows in the center where when looking back in time shows the Universe started out as just the size of an Atom.

Hawking's still has not answered Gravity on a quantum level, but there are experiments in places underground here on Earth and satellites being built to measure and test gravity on a quantum level in space, in hopes to answer the question of Gravities involvement with the Big Bang.

Stephen Hawking's life work since 1965 has been to answer How and Why the universe came to be, he has answered it all with Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Theory, with the help of satellite named WMAP, and black holes. But the fluke in nature, Gravity, the weakest force in the Universe, is the key the lock of the final question as to how and why the Universe came to be.


WMAP
|http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/map/dr3/sos/|
Webmaster: Michael R. Greason
NASA Official: Dr. Gary F. Hinshaw
Page was last updated: July 30, 2008

This page is the WMAP satellite images in High Res of the heat radiation of the Big Bang. Contains images in different spectrums of Frequency spanning over 5 years. Also explains the percentage of the total makeup of the universe.

Since this page hasn't been updated in a while I can't comment on its accuracy, but 2 years ago, had to of been accurate, new images, news of new discoveries have become available since then.

WMAP 7 year mission News Page
|http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/news/|
Webmaster: Britt Griswold
NASA Official:
Dr. Gary F. Hinshaw
Last Updated: April 16, 2010

Here the WMAP satellite news is kept up to date. WMAPs discoveries involving the Big Bang as they are found are entered here by NASA. Showing so far all data gathered by WMAP show's that our Universe is flat with a cosmological constant.

Its accuracy, well it's a NASA site, most definitely accurate. The site can be pretty hard to comprehend at times, they do give brief explanations about some of the material and what is found. They made it easy to navigate with links on the page which will give a greater understanding to what is being said.

Is there a theory of everything?
|http://www.pbs.org/wnet/hawking/mysteries/html/kaku2-1.html|
Editor: Dr. Michio Kaku

The site doesn't say when it was last updated, the information given within is accurate and up to date. The article on the site is written by Dr. Michio Kaku, he is a Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of New York, he is also considered by many in the field to be an expert in Theoretical Physics. Here he explains and describes Stephen Hawking's Theory of Everything, so clear, to where someone who has no knowledge of cosmology can understand it.

The site explains Hawking's theory, the Universe and how it all fits together.


Quantum Mechanics
|http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qm/|

This is a site maintained by Stanford University and this is a page in their Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The site was created in 2000 last updated in September of 2009. This site carries information from multiple Professors from many Universities in the country, who all contributed to the explanations on the site. It's fairly hard to read and will take some time to fully understand and one will have to bear through it. The site has graphs and shows the number systems associated with Quantum Mechanics. It has an explantation, how to do the math involved, and how it all operates.

Once one understands this page, honestly will take a while due to its hard reading, will be able to have a conversation about it with anyone in the field. This site will leave you with more questions but thats not a bad thing. This site is accurate and concise and has helped me a lot in the past when needing to find equations or to refresh my memory. Hawking's uses Quantum Mechanics to explain the tiny, this site will give a greater understanding of it.

Quantum Theory
http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/quantum-theory

Posted by Margaret Rouse

This site is all about Quantum Theory and how it became to be. It also explains the two major interpretations of the theory and it's nature of reality. The site includes a video on what Quantum Theory truly captures and all it's influences. At the end of this site, it provides an area where one can ask questions to get answers from peers on the most technical challenges that follow Quantum Theory.

Last updated: January 2015
Review date: December 1st, 2016
Reviewed by: Ashlen Richards

This site is completely accurate and up to date. It helps explain the Quantum Theory more and breaks it down to understand the concept a little better. I believe that it is a site intended for physic students in either high school or college.


Stephen Hawking's Prediction of Theory of Everything

https://www.newscientist.com/blogs/culturelab/2010/09/stephen-hawking-says-theres-no-theory-of-everything.html

Posted by: Craig Callender
Last updated: December 2nd, 2010
Review date: December 1st, 2016
Reviewed by: Ashlen Richards

This site was last updated in 2010, stating Hawking's statement on the Theory of Everything - "There's no Theory of Everything". It vividly explains how after three decades of him trying to prove the theory, he finally gives up. The site is written in a way that the audience can easily understand what is being taught. It may have been updated in 2010, but there is no more recent news since then - therefore it is up to date.

Hawking Radiation Video
|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6srN4idq1E|

This is a YouTube video, showing Stephen Hawking's Radiation and how it works with a Black Hole, the video is taken off of the Discovery Channels Documentary of Stephen Hawking.


The Big Bang According to Stephen Hawking
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gs-yWMuBNr4

This video was uploaded to Youtube in 2011. It is a quick video, easy to watch and understand, the theory of the Big Bang and how we became. It vividly shows, with interesting visuals, the process of Hawking's theory, even going back in time.