Not Just a Delicious Candy BarPage started by R. MartinEdited by M. Lewis 12/2010
Edited by Adriana Vicente Spring 2011
Edited by Eryn Vigil Fall 2011
Edited by Angela Harwood 11/19/12
Edited by Krisna Sayviseth Spring 2013Edited by Joseph Tolentino Fall 2016


Milky_Way_Galaxy.jpg

The Milky Way



If you didn't know already, The Milky Way, which holds more than 400 billion stars, is the most known galaxy out of the tens of billions in this universe. It is also the home to our solar system. There is a Greek Mythology about baby Hercules who was brought by Zeus to drink Hera's breast milk so he can become immortal. What we see in the night sky is spilt milk. The Milky Way appeared like a ribbon of milk to the ancient Greeks and the word galactos is the Greek translation for milk. Galileo used his telescope to prove that the light of the galaxy comes from the billions of stars in the galaxy which forms the milk.

It's almost as if we lived in galactic "burbs", just sitting on the outskirts of a giant. With the Milky Way Stretching 100,000-120,000 light years in diameter, it has been estimated to have a 750 Billion to one trillion solar masses. Astronomers have used Kepler's third law to help calculate the mass of the Milky Way. The way they did this was to relate to the orbit radius and period with central mass. "It was the Greek Democritus (460-370 BC) who first claimed that the Milky Way consisted of distant stars. William Herschel, in 1785, made the first map of the Milky Way. Herschel was the first to study and measure the distribution of stars in space. He counted the stars he could see and concluded that the stars were grouped into a huge disk formation and he was right." If we viewed this Spiral Galaxy, so named for its spectacular spiral arms, on its side we would see it as a flat disk with a bulge in the center. The entire disk has an angelic halo where most of the bright stars live. The Milky Way arms are named for constellations and the major arms of the Milky Way Galaxy are called Perseus Arm, Sagittarius Arm, Centarus Arm and Cygnus Arm, they are located out towards the edge of the Milky Way on one of its spiral minor arms called the Orion Spur.
The central bulge consists of old stars and at least one black hole. The arms contain younger stars with dust and gas which form from new stars. How old is the milky way exactly? With having an estimate of the age of the universe, we can be sure that the Milky Way is younger. The Milky Way galaxy is range 800 million to 13.5 billion years old.

Our sun is located in the disk about 28,000 light-years from the galactic center. It took scientists up until the recent century to prove that our sun is not the center of the galaxy but it does revolve around it. The sun does a circular orbit with the speed of about 220 km/s. The sun completes a revolution in about 230 million years. While the sun is orbiting around the Milky Way, the Milky Way is also moving. We found that the Milky Way actually moves towards it's neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy. The center of the Milky Way galaxy is about 200 globular clusters. Part of the problem is that clouds of interstellar gas and dust known collectively as the interstellar mediumfill the galactic disk. This makes it hard to see. There is dust and smog, which also makes it difficult to see when astronomers try to observe it in visible light. As a result, it is hard to discern that we don't live near our galaxy's center.

Below is a list of helpful websites that include reviews you can use to learn more about the Milky Way Galaxy.



(Each category can have 1-5 + plus signs which indicate official rating for the site, see below)

The Milky Way Galaxy
http://www.seds.org/messier/more/mw.html - "The Milky Way Galaxy"
Summary: This is an interesting, easy to find, German Astronomer's own page. I checked some of his sources and the information seems parallel with NASA and The Essential Cosmic Perspective, a college level Astronomy text book. His credentials are impressive. The site includes detailed scientific specs regarding the Milky Way, links for more information and pictures, sources, Messier Objects, and great for a quick, general understanding of the Milky Way.
Accuracy: +++++
Readability: ++++
Clarity: ++++
Ease of Navigation: +++
Up to date information?: Yes, LAST VIEWED 12/1/10
milyway2.jpg










Space
http://www.space.com/milkyway/ - "All About the Milky Way"
Summary: This is a page more dedicated to articles about the Milky Way, because the site acts more as a news service regarding space. It covers our galaxy's past, present, and future, with some informative articles that are super easy to find as they are on same page as the link above. It also features animated shorts, videos and pictures!
Accuracy: ++++
Readability: ++++
Clarity: +++++
Ease of Navigation: +++
Up to date information?: Yes, LAST VIEWED 05/19/11

NASA
http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_649.html - "Image of the Day Gallery"
Summary: NASA's website lists hundreds of articles about the Milky way and up to date details with features like "A Picture of the Day," which shows some great rare photographs of Milky Way events. Here's an example briefly mentioning the massive black hole at the center of the galaxy.
Accuracy: +++++
Readability:++++
Clarity: ++++
Ease of Navigation: +++
Up to date information?: Yes, LAST VIEWED 05/19/11
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NASA
http://mwmw.gsfc.nasa.gov/ - "The Wavelength Milky Way"
Summary: This site is specifically dedicated to the color spectra/wavelengths of the Milky Way. The site has in depth analysis of the Milky's Way's wavelengths/light data with respect to radio waves, infrared light, gamma rays and much more. If you click on the link on the home page that says "science users" you will be directed to an extensive page detailing wavelength information. This site is also put on by NASA.
Accuracy: +++++
Readability: +++
Clarity:++++
Ease of Navigation: ++++
Up to date information?: Yes, LAST VIEWED 05/19/11

Astronomy Cafe
http://www.astronomycafe.net/qadir/agalaxy.html - "96 Facts About Galacies From Astronomy"
Summary: This is actually a page from http://www.astronomycafe.net/, its fairly easy to find but you would have to be someone who regularly does a little online research/probing. It's loaded with frequently asked questions, myth busters, and good general information. The top of the page from the first link I listed has The Milky Way: Basic Information listed in Red. It features great need to know answers to questions like "How many spiral arms does the Milky Way galaxy have?", "Who discovered the Milky Way rotates?", and "What is the Milky Way made of?", just to name a few. The site also includes Hubble Telescope image links.
Accuracy: ++++
Readability: +++++
Clarity: +++++
Ease of Navigation: +++
Up to date information?: Mostly, LAST VIEWED 05/19/11
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Window to the Universe
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/the_universe/Milkyway.html - "The Milky Way Galaxy: Our Home"
Summary: This is a fabulous website written by a teacher covering physics to Astronomy and the Universe. It is very easy to navigate as long as you have no problem guessing what category the information you seek is under. The Milky Way has its own page after you find the Galaxy page. There is a blue link that will direct you to the page you want.
Accuracy: +++++
Readability: +++++
Clarity: +++++
Ease of Navigation: +++++
Up to date information?: Mostly, LAST VIEWED 05/19/11

May 2010

Newly added websites and information:


Enchanted Learning
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/solarsystem/where.shtml - "Our Solar Systems location in the Milky Way Galaxy"
Summary: This website is a learning website with much information not only about our solar system but resources for teachers and students with topics for discussion, essays and even craft projects. This website has a variety of topics from the solar system, biology, physical science, etc. The best part about this website this that you can view it in various languages.
LAST VIEWED 05/19/11

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/2010/su201012.html - "Weekly Science Update, Friday, 3/19/10" "Origins of the Milky Way"
Summary: This website is managed by The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The research comes from the Smithsonian and Harvard University scientists. This site posts "Weekly Science Updates". This particular link was posted (3/19/10) and is about the Milky Way, "Origins of the Milky Way." There are also links to other information about astronomy which you can search by title, date, topic, etc.
LAST VIEWED 05/19/11
external image tn.jpg






An optical image of the dwarf galaxy in Sculptor. Astronomers have found a very old star in this galaxy, in support of the idea that some of the Milky Way's old stars were once residents of neighboring galaxies. Low Resolution Image (jpg)

SolStation
http://www.solstation.com/x-objects/cenbulge.htm - "Milky Way's Central Bulge"
Summary: This website focuses on the Milky Way's Central Bulge (picture above is from the site). There are many facts listed as well as updates on new about the Milky Ways Central Bulge one of which states that the oldest stars in the Milky Way are located in the Central Bulge. Breaking news was announced on 1/5/09 where researchers found that the solar systems galactic center is estimated to be 100,000 miles per hour faster than thought. This research estimates that the galactic center's speed is about 568 million miles per hour, this finding concludes that the Milky Way is 50% more massive than estimated which increases the gravitational pull and the chance of a collision with another galaxy has increased.
LAST VIEWED 05/19/11
c2bulge.jpg

An Atlas of The Universe
http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/galaxy.html - "Map of the Milky Way"
Summary: This website give you an Atlas of the Universe. Yes, a website that gives you an idea of what our entire universe looks like. There are nine main maps all of which you can zoom in or zoom out of. This website contains information in multiple languages, glossary to look up astronomy vocabulary, Links to other helpful astronomy websites and negative images for printing.

NASA
http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/5-8/features/F_How_Big_is_Our_Universe.html "How Big is Our Universe?"
Summary: NASA's website has an abundant amount of information of our solar system. You can find anything from current events, new research, old research, missions, and many links to other sites to get more information for what you are looking for.
LAST VIEWED 05/19/11
Internet Resources Used in this Article:
http://www.astrodigital.org/astronomy/milkywaygalaxy.html

May 2011

Newly added websites and information:


Galaxies
http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/research/gr/public/gal_milky.html - "Our Own Galaxy- The Milky Way"
Summary: This website is from Cambridge Cosmology and it talks about our galaxy called the Milky Way. It talks about the disk, the Halo, the bulge. It defines what they are. It does not give a lot of details about the Milky Way but if you need quick meaning of the words then this is the site made just for you.
Accuracy: ++++
Readability: ++++
Clarity: ++++
Ease of Navigation: ++++
Up to date information?: Yes, LAST VIEWED 05/19/11

Universe Today
http://www.universetoday.com/21563/milky-way/ - "Milky Way"
Summary: This article was written by Fraser Cain on November 26, 2008. The article elaborates on how our galaxy is like a mystery to us. However, it is important for us to know about it. The author of the article has included a list of links that will help you do more of your research about the Milky Way more conveniently. For example, there are a list of links that answer questions like: What does the Milky Way look like?, Age of the Milky Way, Center of the Milky Way, Closest Galaxy to the Milky Way, Diameter of the Milky Way.
Accuracy: +++
Readability: ++++
Clarity: ++++
Ease of Navigation: +++++
Up to date information?: Yes, LAST VIEWED 05/19/11

Science
http://science.discovery.com/videos/space-school-milky-way.html- "Space School- Milky Way Picture by- Fraser Cain"
Summary: The video on this website will help you get a good insight upon how far the Milky Way is from the earth and how many stars consist in it. It helps you get a general idea of the milky way. If you are one of those people who like to watch videos rather than reading about it then this is the site for you.
Accuracy: +++++
Readability: N/A
Clarity: +++++
Ease of Navigation: +++++
Up to date information?: Yes, LAST VIEWED 05/19/11
milkyway.gif








Milky Way - The Galaxy
http://www.glyphweb.com/esky/concepts/milkyway.html- "eSky:Milky Way Picture By- Mark Fisher"
Summary: This website by Mark Fisher talks about what the Milky Way looks like from the earth with a telescopic aid. It further talks about how bright the Milky Way is and the constellations inside the Milky Way. The site compares the Milky Way to other galaxies in the universe. Read this site and see how important the Milky Way is and how it works.
Accuracy: +++++
Readability: +++++
Clarity: +++++
Ease of Navigation: +++++
Up to date information?: Yes, LAST VIEWED 05/19/11 Picture By- Mark Fisher
milkyway-1.gif











December 2012
Newly added websites and information:



Astronomical Adventures
http://www.astrodigital.org/astronomy/milkywaygalaxy.html - "The Milky Way Galaxy"
Author: Jim Plaxco
Last Updated: 2007
Date Reviewed: December 1, 2012
Reviewed by: Angela Harwood
Accuracy: This information seems accurate and very up to date. The information seems that it has its approximations right. This website agrees with the information on the age and size of the Milky Way with the ESA Kids website. It also agrees with Kepler's third law of planetary motion.
Readability and Clarity: The audience is 11th graders. The score the Flesch Reading Ease scale gave this website is a 53.5, which means that it's a harder read than most but not too hard. It is appropriate for this grade level and above. It is an easy read.
Ease of Navigation: It is easy to find out more information on other topics about Astronomy. There are more pages beyond the homepage and they are part of the site.
MilkywayEdgeon.jpg
Source for picture: http://www.astrodigital.org/astronomy/milkywaygalaxy.html

ESA Kids
http://www.esa.int/esaKIDSen/SEM536WJD1E_OurUniverse_0.html - "Stars and Galaxies"
Author: Unknown
Last Updated: December 1, 2012
Date Reviewed: December 1, 2012
Reviewed by: Angela Harwood
Accuracy: The information seems accurate and up to date because there is only basic information about the Milky Way and that information hasn't changed. There are not any facts that contradict information from reliable sources or texts.
Readability and Clarity: The audience is 7th graders. The score the Flesch Reading Ease scale gave this website is a 68.9. It seems that the website could be read by grades lower, even fifth and sixth grade. It's very easy to read. It isn't appropriate for this grade because it is too easy of a read.
Ease of Navigation: It is easy to find out more information on other topics about Astronomy. Except it would be easier if you didn't have to click on pictures for the other links. But that makes it easier for the children to see what the topic is going to be about. There are more pages beyond the homepage. The pages are part of the site.
hst_48_l.jpg
Source for picture: http://www.esa.int/esaKIDSen/SEM536WJD1E_OurUniverse_1.html

NASA
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/GLAST/science/milky_way_galaxy.html - "Milky Way Galaxy"
Author: Robery Naeye
Last Updated: August 28, 2008
Date Reviewed: December 1, 2012
Reviewed by: Angela Harwood
Accuracy: The information seems up to date even though it was last updated in 2008. It shows how people come up with the information they have about the Milky Way galaxy and Gamma-rays. There are not facts that contradict information from reliable sources or texts.
Readability and Clarity: The audience is college level students. The score the Flesch Reading Ease scale gave this website is a 39.0 making it a harder read than most. It is very appropriate for this age group and up. It is easy to read if you are an adult.
Ease of Navigation: It is very easy to find out more. There is a link to see the picture closer. You can make the text bigger if you can't see it very well. There is even a "back to top" button. There are more pages beyond the homepage and they are part of the site.
gamma_ray_sky.jpg
Source for picture: http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/gamma.html

Outer Space Universe
http://www.outerspaceuniverse.org/6-random-facts-about-the-milky-way-galaxy.html - "6 Random Facts about the Milky Way Galaxy"
Author: Brian - Staff Writer
Last Updated: January 11, 2012
Date Reviewed: December 1, 2012
Reviewed by: Angela Harwood
Accuracy: The six random facts are all accurate.
Readability and Clarity: The audience is 9th graders. The score the Flesch Reading Ease scale gave this website is a 56.8. The information is easy to read and will keeps anyone's attention because it is a short article.
Ease of Navigation: It is easy to find out more information on other topics about Astronomy. There are related articles linked at the bottom. There are more pages beyond the homepage. The pages are part of the site. There are also links to Facebook, Google and Twitter.
the-milky-way-galaxy.jpg
Source for picture: http://www.outerspaceuniverse.org/6-random-facts-about-the-milky-way-galaxy.html

Hyper TextBook
http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/AlinaVayntrub.shtml - "Mass of the Milky Way"
Author: Alina Vayntrub
Last Updated: 2000
Date Reviewed: December 4, 2012
Reviewed by: Angela Harwood
Accuracy: All of the masses are about 200 to 1000 billion that of the suns so the information is accurate because that's how much http://www.universetoday.com/22790/mass-of-the-milky-way/ and http://www.astrodigital.org/astronomy/milkywaygalaxy.html says.
Readability and Clarity: The audience is 8th to 9th graders. The score the Flesch Reading Ease scale gave this website is a 55.0, meaning it is an average, not too hard or easy read. It is written appropriately for these grades. It is a very easy read, not too many long words or complex sentences. It is a chart which makes it even easier.
Ease of Navigation: It is easy to find out more. There are three indexes. There is a home button and a contact button. There are more pages beyond the homepage. The pages are part of the site.


May 2013
Newly added websites and information:


The Big Bang
http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-are-galaxies/ - "Formation"
Author: Ruth Netting
Last Update: April 29, 2013
Date Reviewed: 16 May 2013
Reviewed By: Krisna Sayviseth
Summary: According to the Big Bang, the universe was composed of radiation and subatomic particles. Perhaps all the particles had come together and created clusters all different shapes and sizes and created a bigger picture; our galaxy.
Accuracy: ++++
Readability: +++++
Clarity: ++++
Ease of Navigation: +++++

The Milky Way Structure
http://casswww.ucsd.edu/archive/public/tutorial/MW.html - "The Milky Way Galaxy"
Author: Gene Smith
Last Updated: 28 April 1999
Date Reviewed: 16 May 2013
Reviewed By: Krisna Sayviseth
Summary: The Milky Way is a sprial galaxy. It carries three major components: The halo, the nuclear bulge and galactic center, and the disk. Each one of the three compnonets have something important about them. The halo consists of old stars. It is also filled with hot, highly-ionized gas. The nuclear buldge and galactic center is fairly crowded. What shows to be in the center of the Milky Way is a young supernova remnant on the east, ionized hydrogen on the west, and a source called Sagittarius A* in the center. And lastly, the disk. The disk of the galaxy is flat and rotates fairly close to the sun and several young stars.

To find more about the structure of the Milky way, you can read more into the website. Also there are links in which navigates you to finding more details about the structure.
Accuracy: ++++
Readability: ++++
Clarity: ++++
Ease of Navigation:+++++
mwg.jpg
Milky Way's Major Components (Photo from site above)


Traveling Around
http://www.space.com/19915-milky-way-galaxy.html - "The Milky Way Galaxy"
Author: Nola Taylor Redd
Last Updated: February 23rd
Date Reviewed: 15 May 2013
Reviewed By: Krisna Sayviseth
Summary: The Milky Way galaxy is our home. As the sun moves, so does the galaxy. An interesting fact about the galaxy moving is that soon enough, it will crash into its neighbor, the Andromeda galaxy, where the both will then provide a fresh influx of material.

To read more about what will happen when the Milky Way and Andromeda collide, the site offers great information.
Accuracy: +++
Readability: ++++
Clarity: ++
Ease of Navigation: +++



NAME OF WEB SITE: Universe Today - 10 Interesting Facts About the Milky Way
URL (INCLUDING ACTIVE LINK) http://www.universetoday.com/22285/facts-about-the-milky-way.html
AUTHOR - Matt Williams
OVERVIEW - In this site, you can find ten interesting facts that you may have not known about the Milky Way. It gives information about how many stars it has, what it looks like, how it was created, etc. This site also has pictures to give us a visual on what the Milky Way rally looks like/
LAST UPDATED - October 4, 2016
DATE REVIEWED - December 7, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Joseph Tolentino
ACCURACY: It is accurate especially since they state the information and then have pictures to go with the information to show what exactly they are explaining.
READABILITY and CLARITY: The audience can be anyone. It could be for people who are interested in astronomy or for people who are doing research on a topic for a class. It is very easy to read and organized.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It’s easy to find out more. There are words that are in blue that can direct you to another link if you want to find out more information about it or to read more about how it ties into your topic. There is more information on this site that you can go to to learn more about the solar system. They are more pages that are part of the site.


NAME OF WEB SITE: The Cosmic Distance Scale : The Milky Way
URL (INCLUDING ACTIVE LINK) : http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/features/cosmic/milkyway_info.html
AUTHOR - Not known
OVERVIEW - In this site, it gives facts about the distance of the Milky way, how we can calculate distances of this magnitude, why finding out the distances are important, and how long it would take to travel. Under these different sections, they give a good amount of information that you may want to know.
LAST UPDATED - September 21, 2016
DATE REVIEWED - December 7, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Joseph Tolentino
ACCURACY: It is accurate especially since its by NASA. The information is up to date.
READABILITY and CLARITY: The audience can be anyone. It could be for people who are interested in astronomy or for people who are doing research on a topic for a class. It is very easy to read. Its split into different sections with different information.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It’s easy to find out more. There are words that are in blue that directs you to the dictionary that they have on the site, if you don’t know the definition. Theres a side bar with different options you can go to to look at more information about different topics.


NAME OF WEB SITE : National Geographic - Our Part of the Milky Way Is Four Times Bigger Than We Thought
URL (INCLUDING ACTIVE LINK) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/09/milky-way-local-arm-four-times-bigger-than-expected/
AUTHOR - Brian Clark Howard
OVERVIEW - This site is about the new major findings that changed how scientists view the structure of our galaxy. There are pictures and videos that give visualization.
LAST UPDATED - September 30, 2016
DATE REVIEWED - December 7, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Joseph Tolentino
ACCURACY: This site seems accurate. National Geographic is reliable especially since they are a well known as the largest scientific and educational institution.
READABILITY and CLARITY: The audience can be anyone. It could be for people who are interested in astronomy or for people who are doing research on a topic for a class. It is very easy to read.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It is easy to find more. Towards the end of the article there is a “You might also like” box, that contains different links you can click on. They will take you to more pages with new information you may be interested in. They are part of the site.


NAME OF WEB SITE CNN ‘Dark Twin’ of the Milky Way Galaxy Discovered
URL (INCLUDING ACTIVE LINK) : http://www.cnn.com/2016/08/27/health/massive-dark-matter-galaxy-dragonfly-44-milky-way/
AUTHOR - Ashley Strickland
OVERVIEW - This site is about a newly discovered “dark twin” of the Milky Way called Dragonfly 44 was discovered. It gives a lot of information on the new discovery. There are pictures to go along with the article
LAST UPDATED - August 29, 2016
DATE REVIEWED - December 7, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Joseph Tolentino
ACCURACY: - The informations seems accurate. There is information put into this article that was said by NASA, regarding this new discovery. NASA is very reliable. There are also quotes of what astronomers have said about the discovery.
READABILITY and CLARITY:The audience can be anyone. It could be for people who are interested in astronomy or for people who are doing research on a topic for a class. It is very easy to read.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: There isn’t extra links you can go to to find more information. You would have to search on your own if you want to find out more information on this topic.


NAME OF WEB SITE The Milky Way Galaxy - Our Home
URL (INCLUDING ACTIVE LINK) http://www.windows2universe.org/the_universe/Milkyway.html
AUTHOR - Travis Metcalfe
OVERVIEW- This site gives the basic information of the Milky Way galaxy. There are pictures that go along with the information and has links you can click for frequently asked questions and the answers to the questions.
LAST UPDATED - January 11, 2006
DATE REVIEWED - December 7, 2016
REVIEWED BY: Joseph Tolentino
ACCURACY: - This information does seem accurate anymore. It is from ten years ago and hasn’t been updated since.
READABILITY and CLARITY: This site can be for any audience although I believe it can go towards children more. The information is short and easy to read.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It is easy to find out more. There are links you can go to on the sides of the page and on the bottom. Theres also different tabs at the top that you are able to click on, to go to different subjects.
milky-way-andromeda-collision.jpg
Both the Milky Way and Andromeda neighboring each other. (Photo from site above)