Edited by: Pierre Reed Spring 2014
Galaxy- a large system held together by gravity forces that are mutual and isolated from similar systems of vast regions of space.
Huffinton Post
Article written by Ron Cowen about a Theoretical Physicist Jaun Maldacena who says that the Universe the place where all the galaxies in the universe lay may simply be a hologram. The author is indicating that there is a mathematically intricate world of strings which exist in nine dimensions of space plus one of time would be merely a hologram.


Site talks aboit the evidence we have that explain how we have a good estimate about how many galaxies are in our universe. The site is operated by the institute of physics and the physics society designed to inspire people of all ages to be interested in physics. The site was easy to navigate and locate information.


Ri Channel
How many universes are out there? Thats a question that chris anderson tries to answer in 2012 and basically brings up the fact that there may be multiple universes out there and we really dont know much besides that.This information is important because there may be that many more galaxies out there that would clearly indicate that intelligent life does exist out there somewhere. The site was easy to navigate and understand.


Every Galaxy has counterparts in other universes

In January 2013 the daily

Edited by: Brandon Smith FALL 2012
GALAXIESA galaxy is a huge collection of stars, gases, dust, and dark matter held together by gravity. Galaxies come in many shapes and sizes, ranging from 10 million to 10 trillion stars. The shape of the galaxy can be elliptical or spiral. Elliptical galaxies are rounded and have no dust or gas in their orbits and no bright stars that humans can see. Spiral galaxies are disk-shaped and bright with dust, gas, and visible stars.
Galaxies contain varying numbers of star systems, star clusters and types of interstellar clouds.
Galaxies have been historically categorized according to their apparent shape; usually referred to as their visual morphology.

external image colliding_galaxies.jpg


The NASA Science Astrophysics website is very informational and organized with different sets of information. It also has different links to other websites of extended information. It is very easy to read with simple words & also with color coordinated headings for links. It has different topics with a variety of information as well as pictures to go with it. The website also provides several videos that help describe the information.The author is Ruth Netting and it was last updated on March 16, 2012. It was reviewed on 12/8/2012 by Brandon Smith.


This website explains the different types of discoveries that NASA's Hubble Space Telescope saw in 2011 and 2012. It is a helpful and accurate sight and is the news release archive for Galaxies. This website is very easy to read because of it's organization and format, it is also easy to find out more with other links given. It gives a picture of each of their discoveries, an explanation of what the object in the picture is physically, and a description of what they discovered. The name of the website is Hubble Site there is not an author, it does not say when it was last updated but it gives dates for the pictures. This was reviewed by Kelsey Gay on 5/11/12.

GALAXIES!!As-Samad Robison FALL 2011(all images taken from Google Images)
Merging Galaxies
Merging Galaxies

gal-ax-y/ˈgaləksē/Noun1. A system of millions or billions of stars, together with gas and dust, held together by gravitational attraction.WHAT exactly is a galaxy?
It is a group, more defined, a cluster of stars, gas, and dust. How many stars does it take to make a galaxy?
For a group of stars to be considered a galaxy, it must follow this criteria:
  • have dark matter
  • does not have star collisions
  • have a radius of 300 light years.
WHERE are galaxies located?
Galaxies are located in the outer space many light years away. (1 light year = the distance of light traveled in one Earth year).
They are located in every direction, millions, billions, and trillions of light-years away. Or even just one! Our own sun is a star in the Milky Way galaxy, so the closest galaxy is actually surrounding us.

WHO discovered the first evidence of galaxies?
Edwin Hubble

WHEN were galaxies discovered?
Edwin Hubble in 1923 found evidence that galaxies existed.

HOW were galaxies discovered?
Hubble noticed light specks too far away to be in our galaxy. It turns out that the light was seen in the Andromeda galaxy, very far from us in the Milky Way galaxy.

Galaxies are classified by shape.
Spiral galaxies have a center core made of old stars and usually a black hole and outer rotating arms made of younger stars, protostars, dust, and gas. When seen from above, a spiral galaxy looks like a pinwheel.

Barred Spiral:
The Milky Way galaxy is an example of a barred spiral galaxy. These are similar to spiral galaxies but the arms extend out in a bar due to magnetic field energy.

Almost all galaxies are elliptical, shaped from spherical (older) to almost flat (younger). These galaxies do not rotate.

These galaxies don't fit the description of the other categories.

Are a cluster of galaxies.The Milky Way is just one galaxy in a galactic cluster called the Local Group.

This website explains the different types of galaxies and also gives the reader background information as to who and how they were discovered. It is also helpful that this article gives additional links at the end of the report for further research. The article is easy to read and also includes visual such as pictures of each type of galaxy. The authors are Hartmut Frommert and Christine Kronberg. The article is somewhat recent; it was made in May of 2009.

Curious About Astronomy- Galaxies
This website is interesting because not only does it give the different types of galaxies but also provides names of galalxies for each type. The website is very easy to read because of its good organization. The website was last modified in 2005. Some new information may have been discovered since then so this website will not provide that information. This article does not provide an author's name.

Galaxies- Celestial Bodies on Sea and Sky
This webiste is very well organized because each heading and subheading are color coded, making it easier to read. It gives the general information about what galaxies are, the different types of galaxies and images are also included. The website does not provide an author but it is recent considering the copyright date is in 2009.
This website is the most helpful when it comes to understanding why galaxies are given the names that they are named. There are charts, tables, and images to help the reader understand the author's message. It is organized into categories with subheadings. There are additional links about galaxies given for the reader. The author is Gene Smith and this website was made in 2000.
external image glx_Hubble_sequence_16.jpg

This website is easy to read and organized by subheadings. It explains the different types of galaxies and included are pictures of each. The website also explains how galaxies are named. It also goes in detail about the shape and age of galaxies. There is not an author's name or last modified date included.


See external page here: [[https://astronomygalaxies.wikispaces.com/]]

Edited by: Brandon Smith Fall 2012

Andromeda Galaxy

eSky: Galaxies Index
eSky is a site that offers an index with a wide range of galaxies, and includes a varying amount of information for each. There are plenty of links on this site for many galaxy and astronomy-related questions and topics. eSky is extremely simple to navigate through and very readable as well. The information is made very clear and easy to understand. It is up to date as of this year, and the author is Mark Fischer.

Sloan Digital Sky Survey
This page contains mostly basic, but very educational information on galaxies. Included in the information is descriptions of Spiral, Irregular, Elliptical and Quasar galaxies. This page also briefly discusses galaxy classification and includes photos of the different types galaxies. Easy to navigate through and easy to read, this site is a great source for anyone with simple questions about our Milky Way galaxy and similar questions about other kinds of galaxies. No author is specified.

Windows to the Universe
Windows to the Universe provides you with information about galaxies in general, and in addition to this it also provides information about Spiral, Irregular and Elliptical galaxies. What I really like about this website is that it allows the reader to change the reading level to either beginner, intermediate, or advanced, so it is accessible to anyone who wants to learn more about these different types of galaxies. The information on this page is also available in Spanish making it even more accessible than most sites. It is a very simple site to find your way around. The information is up to date as of 2010, and no specific author is mentioned.


Astronomy Notes
Astronomy Notes is a great site with an extensive amount of information about galaxies. This site offers information about different types of galaxies, the positions of galaxies in our sky, the distances to galaxies, masses of galaxies, origins of galaxies, active galaxies, quasars, and much more. One great feature of this site is that it includes review questions in between some of the sections which allow you to test your knowledge on the subject matter. The reading is about high school level, and the page is extremely easy to navigate. An index is also provided, making it simple to jump from topic to topic. The information was last updated in June of 2010 by Nick Strobel.

Ask an Astronomer
Ask an Astronomer is a very helpful page with a wealth of information about everything you want to know about galaxies! This website, like the others, includes information about the different types of galaxies, however it is not limited to just this information. Ask an Astronomer also lists their favorite links to other websites with info on galaxies. As if that were not enough, this site provides you with a plethora of previously asked questions pertaining to galaxies. Questions range from basic ones such as "How are galaxies named?" to ones as advanced as "Why does the apparent density of galaxies drop off at larger distances?" with a variety of topics including: formation and evolution of galaxies, cosmology, groups and clusters, and much more. The site is very simply laid out and easy to operate. It was last modified on October of 2005, with no author listed.

Astronomy in Questions and Answers
This site answers many questions about astronomy in a question and answer format. This site also offers questions and answers on the Earth and the Moon.The age group for this site is high school A good place for quick answers to simple questions. Good site but the audience for a site like this would be that of a college student or someone with regular knowledge of astronomy.

Spiral Galaxies
This site provides excellent displays of spiral galaxies.This site provides example of spiral galaxies and star clusters. This site requires some prior knowledge to understand all of the content and figures given. The age group is advance placement highschool or college. It explains spiral galaxies well but only touches on a few examples of specific galaxies. Great site to visit for people who want to get an up close look at spiral galaxies.
Spiral galaxies consist of a flat, rotating disk containing stars, gas and dust, and a central concentration of stars known as the bulge.



Star Child
Star Child is a colorful, user friendly site for young people interested in astronomy. Star Child gives explanations of galaxies and provides pictures of different types of galaxies. This site also has a did you know section that answers questions about astronomy topics that you may search on the site. This is a great site for kids or those who don't know very much about astronomy. It lays things out in simple, easy to understand language and has good links to further explain things.

The Encyclopedia of Astrobiology, Astronomy, Space Flight
This site is a resource of the words of David Darling. The Encyclopedia site is a good resource for those serious about astronomy. This site offers vital statistics of astronomical topics. Archived News and books related to astronomy topics are listed on the site. David Darlings site is for high school and college students serious about researching Astronomy. This page is a great source of information about our galaxy. It has pictures and labeled diagrams that do a good job of teaching someone about our galaxy. The audience for this page is is college students or someone with a knowledge of astronomy.

Sea and Sky
Sea and Sky is a site dedicated to the wonders of the universe and the sea. For one who is searching for galaxies on this site, one can find a picture and description of the different types of galaxies. Also this site gives a history of those who have studied galaxies. Users of this site do not need prior knowledge to understand the content of the site. Clear, plain definitions are given for terms like galaxy and universe. This site has great information on galaxies that is presented in an easy to read language. But not only is it a great source for info. on galaxies but it also has a lot of information on other cosmic bodies such stars, planets, black holes...etc.

Sky Image Lab
Sky Image Lab gives spectacular images of the features of space.Sky Image's galaxy page gives pictures and descriptions of galaxies. Sky Image Lab offers a free newsletter and one can order a catalog of sky images from the website. This site is great for pictures but has no value if one is looking for research. The audience intended for this site are those who want to surround themselves with visuals of astronomy. This site is very up to date and contains a lot of great pictures of all kinds of different galaxies and other things. It is a great site for anyone interested in astronomy even if you don't know any thing about it.

Spiral Galaxy


This site is so named after Charles Messier, who wanted to create a catalog of items that were mistaken for comets. This catalog has grown to cover every other object in space. Not only are there objects from his original list, but also objects that have been recently discovered. For every object in his list there is a link for the page,there is an image and information on that image if you click on it. The site is up to date and it is very easy to read and understand.

NASA is a site that not only talks about the objects in the universe, but also gives information on the many programs NASA offers. On the homepage, there are links to specific pages for the Universe, the Solar System, NASA People, and NASA Stations, just to name a few. Also on the homepage, there is a calendar, showing dates for events NASA has, videos, images, and news.


Hubblesite shows news and images form past and recent observations. They also have videos and tours of the universe. The homepage contains quick links to pages for their telescope, astronomy facts, and galleries.They have all the latest news of what is going on in the universe. Each different category is titled so you know where you're going. It is also up to date with new information and astronomical advances. It is readable and not too difficult to understand.


Space.com has a variety of articles that are about galaxies. On the homepage they also have mission updates and videos of happenings in space. This site has images, news, and quizzes to test your knowledge. It is easy to know what they are talking about. They update whenever they get new information so the public knows what's going on as it happens.

A Review of the Universe

This site contains an entire list of objects in the universe. More than just the universe, it also has pages for atoms, molecules, and frontiers of science. They talk about anything in the universe, big and small in easy to read articles. Along with the articles there are pictures to show details of the object you are looking up.

Edited by As-Samad Robison

Universe Today

This page tells a person many things about galaxies. It has links to several things a person may ask about, such as pictures, information on the Milky Way, groups of galaxies, etc. The page starts with an attention grabber that gets people into the thinking that there are many other galaxies in space and how we, the people of Earth, may not be the only life. He then goes into basic details about the galaxy that we live in, the Milky Way. The page sums up with the basics of galaxies and then list the similar questions as links to other pages on the website.

Cambridge Cosmology: Galaxies

This page contains five major links. The links are of course dealing with galaxies, but all for different reasons. One link deals specifically on the galaxy that we live in. another one deals on specific types of galaxies, like spiral and elliptical. The rest of the links clusters deals with galaxies and the dark matter of the universe.

external image m82_irregular.gif
Galaxy Zoo

This page is a way for the people ofAmericato not only learn about the galaxies throughout the universe, but also help people go through the experience. The galaxy zoo is a probe that was launched in July of 2007. The website keeps pictures taken by the probes so that those interested can keep up and not wait a long amount of years just to see pictures that were old. This website seems very interesting.
Kid Astronomy
This website is perfect for children. It educates them on the basics so that if a child decides later in life if the want to learn more about galaxies, they can know something about galaxies. This can also be useful for people who just want to know the basics.

This page speaks of how galaxies work and on how galaxies are formed. It speaks on how galaxies are come from a “big bang” where the form. From the move on and the ones farther seem to show to be older then those closer to the bang. This page showed much information.

Edwin Hubble

Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer who played a crucial role in establishing the field of extra galactic astronomy and is generally regarded as one of the most important observational cosmologist of the 20th century.
Hubble is known for showing that the recessional velocity of a galaxy increases with its distance from the earth, implying the universe is expanding.
Hubble is also known for providing substantial evidence that many formerly known "nebulae" were actually galaxies beyond the Milky Way. American astronomer Vesto Slipher provided the first evidence to this argument almost a decade before.

external image 220px-Edwin_Hubble_with_pipe.jpg
Edwin Hubble's arrival at Mount Wilson, California, in 1919 coincided roughly with the completion of the 100-inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope, then the world's largest telescope. At that time, the prevailing view of the cosmos was that the universe consisted entirely of the. Milky Way Galaxy.
Hubble discovered the asteroid 1373 Cincinnati on August 30, 1935. He also wrote The Observational Approach to Cosmology and The Realm of the Nebulae approximately during this time.
Hubble spent much of the later part of his career attempting to have astronomy considered an area of physics, instead of being its own science. He did this largely so that astronomers—including himself—could be recognized by the Nobel Prize Committee for their valuable contributions to astrophysics. This campaign was unsuccessful in Hubble's lifetime, but shortly after his death, the Nobel Prize Committee decided that astronomical work would be eligible for the physics prize. However, the prize is not one that can be awarded posthumously.