2013 Spring Editor : Jaeson Jones
Dark Matter
Dark Matter is hypothesized to be a large part of what makes up the total mass of the universe. However, it is a type of matter that cannot be seen directly, nor does it emit or absorb any kind of light/electromagnetic radiation. Dark Matter is only theorized to exist because of its identifiable gravitational effects on visible matter, radiation, etc. Although Dark Matter is generally accepted by the scientific community, there are still no agreed upon methods for detecting it nor tracing it.

CDMS_DarkMatter-580x418.jpg
All the mass in the universe is thought to be about 25% Dark Matter. All the "Black" you see in the above image is thought to be Dark Matter.


How We Know of Dark Matter
Dr. Jim Lochner. Updated October 22, 2012. Reviewed: May 16th 2013 Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones.
This site basically explains how dark matter became known by scientists. However it explains that they are not sure on what dark matter is exactly. Below is an image from the website.

Dark Matter: Hot? Cold?
Astronomy 162. Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones.
This site considers the existence of hot dark matter and cold dark matter, and also gives a detailed definition of our current understanding of dark matter. It also includes the tutorial of dark matter. This site also offers many links to other topics including stars, galaxies, and cosmology.

Why Dark Matter Must Exist
Scott I Chase. Updated 1993. Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones.
This site gives a reasonable hypothesis as to why dark matter must exist, as well as a brief explanation as to what dark matter is.

Cosmic Theory Unites Dark Forces
Updated: Michael Schirber 2008. Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones.
This site gives a basic and understandable rundown of a theory stating that dark matter and dark energy may be one unified entity that is fluid-like in nature.


Wired: Study Sheds Light on Dark Matter
Updated By: Leander Kahney 2003. Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones.
An article from WIRED, its written to be easily understandable and shows some evidence as to why our current theories regarding dark matter may have some substance.

Cracks in Dark Matter Theory
Updated By: Stuart Clark 2009. Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones.
This is a short article that argues against the current theory of dark matter, it mentions the possibility of modifying current gravitational formulas to account for galactic movement.
Readability is accessible for high school to college level students.


Clumps and Streams of Dark Matter Found In Milky Way
Updated By: Nancy Atkinson August 6th 2008. Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones
This brief article details a study in which a computer simulation showed the possibility of dark matter clumps in the region of our solar system. This article is easily understandable and it shows that there are tangible ways of gathering evidence supporting the theory of dark matter.


What Is Dark Matter?
Updated By: Martin Rees August 4th 2009. Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones
This site roughly explains what dark matter is and explains some of the evidence proving dark matter. The article mostly consists of what dark matter is assumed to be made of. Some of the theories include: supersymmetric particles, neutrinos, exotic particles, and even brown dwarfs. They say that the most likely candidate to be dark matter is exotic particles.


Dark Matter Facts
Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones
This website shows very simple facts about dark matter. For example, Dark matter is space matter we cannot see because, unlike stars and galaxies, it does not give off light. It goes into saying that there are two types of dark matter within the universe, galactic and intergalactic. The intergalactic dark matter consists of WIMP's. WIMP's vary in speed from barely moving to moving very fast from the big bang (slow moving referred to as "cold" dark matter, fast is referred to as "hot" dark matter).
The site is accurate, easy to read, clear and straight to the point.

What's the (Dark) Matter?
Updated By: John Conway February 27th 2008. Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones
Dark matter is something that cannot be seen, but has massive gravitational effects on the visible universe. Its effects are seen bending light, having gravitational effects on electromagnetic radiation, etc. We have calculated that dark matter makes up about twenty-five percent of the density of the universe. The visible matter we can see makes up only a few percent. The site states in very clear detail about the particles in the general class of dark matter are called WIMP's and gives further details about what WIMP's are and why they are related to Dark Matter.

Dark Matter (New World Encyclopedia)
Reviewed: May 16th 2013. Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones
According to pasted observations dark matter accounting for the majority of mass in the universe. The universe's total energy density is represented by gravitational effects represented by gravitational effects is approximately 4 percent while dark matter is 22 percent, and dark energy 74 percent. There is also evidence to support that dark matter may actually exist when the mass of the Coma Cluster was measured, and was found that there was about 400 times more mass than was predicted. Based on the conclusions astrophysicist Fritz Zavicky whom conducted the observation concluded the extra mass provide enough mass, and gravity to hold the cluster together.


http://astro.berkeley.edu/~mwhite/darkmatter/dm.html
The current belief is that Dark Matter exists in the universe. However because Dark Matter cannot be detected many people wonder if Dark Matter really exists. One of many possible explanations is that through research of the observations done in the night sky is that the amount of mass in our universe is greater than we can currently explain.
Edited By: Piotr Wilencewicz

http://astrosociety.org/education/publications/tnl/72/darkmatter.html
The materials found on the sun,earth, and other stars, planets, and objects in space represent only a small amount of matter in the universe. Most of the universe is composed of Dark Matter however because nobody, or any technology can hear, see, touch, taste, or study it in any way so nobody knows what it is. A theory of Dark Matter is that it is made up of neutrinos. Neutrinos are made from fusion reactions in the core of the sun which come out from the sun. Neutrinos pass through matter which can be one of the explanations of Dark Matter. The idea that Neutrinos can make up in part Dark Matter as during nuclear reactions some energy went missing.

http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2009/11/
This is a recent web site discussing the recent discovery of Dark matter around dwarf planets and the almost aura affect it has on them . provided by photos of the Hubble Space Telescope. This article gives you a brief description, the full story, pictures and videos and gives a brief description of what you are looking at. This page is fairly simple to navigate through and gives you a good understanding of these new discoveries but is intended for people who have some knowledge of astronomy. This Article was released 11-2009 Erik Menjivar

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=what-is-dark-matter This Site contains a video of someone giving a very simple explanation of what Dark Matter is using household items. this brief 60-second video will cover just what dark Matters is and the influence it has on a planets orbit. this site was very easy only being a few sentences and a link to the video but gives you a very good understanding about this subject and how to better put in into words for people with no understanding of Dark Matter. this article was posted Nov 21, 2007. Erik Menjivar 11/29/09

http://www.darkmatterphysics.com/
This Site is intended for people who want a better understanding of Dark Matter. This site gives you information of the first observational evidences of dark matter, Dark Matter within galaxies, Dark Matter between galaxies, and lots of other information for people who have an int interest in this topic. This website is very easy to navigate through and east to understand as well. This easy to navigate through with quick links to other topics and is east to comprehend. this site was last updated July 27 2007. Erik Menjivar 11/29/09

http://www.howstuffworks.com/dark-matter.htm
This web site gives you a little more detailed description of what dark matter is and how it can be detected. This site also provides a lot of other links about Dark Matter and some of the theories that go into trying to understand Dark Matter .This Site is fairly easy to navigate through and is quite easy to read and understand for those with little or no understanding of the topic. This site is fairly kept up to date. Erik Menjivar 11/29/09

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast123/lectures/lec16.html
I found this site to be more technical than the others and goes off into the specifics of "Dark Matter". It explains step by step the theory of Dark Matter. There are multiple charts and graphs, as well as visuals that explain how and why the theory was created. This site in my opinion is for the more advanced student who already has an idea of Dark Matter. There are many different topics in this site that can help anybody get an understanding of Dark Matter. There are sections that go off and explain current observations and estimates of dark matter. This is a great site for anybody who wants to get a greater understanding of dark matter and its technical details. I was unable to find out when this site was last updated. This site was easy to navigate and clear on details
Recommended age group; high school students and up

http://nasascience.nasa.gov/astrophysics/what-is-dark-energy
Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones May 16th 2013
NASA website's on Dark Matter is a great one for beginners. It it simple and gives enough information to give people an idea of the concept of Dark Matter. There is an intro, a section of Dark Energy, and a section on Dark Matter. It doesn't go off into more complicated subjects like formulas and graphs. This sight teaches you how Dark Matter and Dark Energy work together to expand the universe. There is a visual example of Dark Matter expanding the universe. At the bottom of the visual there is a link that takes you to a different site that explains more on Dark Matter and the supernova. This site gets right to the point and explains all the basics you need to know for an understanding of the concept of Dark Matter. This website is good for middle school kids or older. It's a great beginner website. I was unable to find an author or when the site was last updated.

http://www.spacedaily.com/news/darkmatter-04e.html
Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones May 16th 2013
This was another site that goes off and explains Physicist Robert Scherrer's theory. There are npo graphs or visuals. This page is more of a column type page. Even though it was short it still has good information..
Recommended age group; middle school students and up


http://chandra.harvard.edu/xray_astro/dark_matter/
Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones May 16th 2013
This site explains a brief description of each the evidence for Dark matter, the amount that is in our galaxy, alternatives that we can provide instead of dark matter, and the definition of dark matter.

Video
Reviewed By: Jaeson Jones May 16th 2013
An imprint of the first moments of creation has been discovered by the space telescope. A filament of dark matter extends 60 million light years from one of the most massive galaxy clusters known.


Dark Matter Particle Discovered
Updated By: Jason Major April 15th 2013. Overview By: Jaeson Jones May 16th 2013
This article from "Universe Today" describes the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS)'s discovery of a weakly-interacting massive particle or WIMP thought to be composed of Dark Matter. Article goes into detail about the particle that was discovered, with good background information on what WIMP's are and other factors related to the search and discovery of Dark Matter. Readability and accessibility is around High School level.

Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Uncovers Clues About Dark Matter
Updated By: April Smith-Spark April 5th 2013. Overview By: Jaeson Jones May 16th 2013
This CNN article details the initial findings of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer that was sent up to the International Space Station nearly two years ago. Particle physicists of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) discuss the findings and the implications they could have on the theories of Dark Matter. Also included in the article is a short video that helps set the stage for the rest of the article. Readability and accessibility is around Middle School to High School level.

Particle Physicists Discover Hard Evidence of Dark Matter Underground
Updated By: Sebastian Anthony April 18th 2013. Overview By: Jaeson Jones May 16th 2013
This article posted on "Extreme Tech" gives a much more thorough look into the discovery of the Sigma-3 WIMP discussed earlier in the above link "Dark Matter Particle Discovered". Gives an in-depth explanation of how the SuperCDMS works and helps the reader understand more clearly how the particle was discovered. Readability and Accessibility are for College level and above students.

Tantalizing New Clues About Dark Matter
Updated By: Dennis Overbye April 3rd 2013. Overview By: Jaeson Jones May 16th 2013
This article from the New York Times goes into detail about the results that are coming in from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer that has been working for nearly 2 years on the International Space Station. The article explores the theories of how Dark Matter and positrons relate, how the high energy particles called positrons could be colliding with Dark Matter, and the relation of electrons and positrons to Dark Matter. Also gives many direct quotes from a variety of physicists and astronomers. Readability and Accessibility ranges from High School to College level.

COUPP-60 Detects "Bubbles" of Dark Matter
Updated By: Kelen Tuttle May 2nd 2013. Overview By: Jaeson Jones May 16th 2013
This article explores the COUPP-60 experiment that is currently being held at SNOLAB Canada. The article goes on to explain how COUPP-60 works, how it detects Dark Matter, what measures are put into place in order for the results to be more accurate, and possible implications of the results of the experiment. Readability and Accessibility are at a High School level.