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The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF)

The word "Cosmology" originated from two Greek words, "Kosmos" means "world" and "logia" means "study of" which translated to study of the world. There are three disciplines under Cosmology. First, is Physical Cosmology which is a branch of physics and astrophysics that deals with the study of physical origins and evolution of the universe. Second, is Religious/ mythological which deals with religious, literature, and traditions of creation. Third, is Philosophical Cosmology which deals with the world as the totality of space, time and all phenomena (source:
Spring 2018
I am Gerardine Sangalang and I am the last person to edit this page before its gone. I made a brief summary of what Cosmology is about. Then, I added pictures that showed the history of the universe and the latest picture of far-out galaxies discovered. Finally, I added five interesting links about Cosmology.

Name of Website: Philosophy of Cosmology
Author: Oxford and Cambridge Universities in UK and USA and other well-known universities
Evaluation: This website is maintained by several prestigious universities such as Oxford, Cambridge, Columbia, New York, Rutgers, UC Santa Cruz and Yale Universities. It is funded by the John Templeton Foundation. The trustworthiness of this website is very high as it is a collaboration between physicists, mathematicians, and philosophers from the universities mentioned above.
Overview: This website shows the collaboration between universities. It is divided into five subtitles such as events, concepts, cosmos, people, and Teaching. Events include regular meetings, local events, and conferences. It also includes multimedia video and audio postings, and blogs. Concepts include philosophies and discoveries in Cosmology from the past the past to present. Cosmos include a visible universe and how it was formed from the Big Bang to the present era. Under people, are professionals who contributed to the page all throughout the years. It also includes the undergraduate and graduate degrees offered in the field of physics and philosophy.
Last Updated: 2017
Date Reviewed: 05/10/18
Reviewed by: Gerardine Sangalang
Accuracy: The information in this website is very accurate backed up by prestigious universities
Readability and Clarity: This website targets college students, teachers, Mathematicians, physicists, and philosophers. It is very readable and the animation and web design is very helpful as it makes every topic easier to understand.
Ease of Navigation: It very easy to navigate and very straightforward.

Name of Website: What is Theoretical Cosmology?
AUTHOR: M. White and J. Cohn
EVALUATE: This site is a collaboration between two authors White and Cohn. But Martin White is the main author. He is a professor of Physics and Astronomy in UC Berkeley. He is also a faculty Senior Scientist.
OVERVIEW: This site gives a good overview of each topic on the homepage and when you click each topic its gives a detailed explanation. It also includes an illustration of the topic. It defines each term effectively and expands its meaning.
LAST UPDATED: March 17, 2006
DATE REVIEWED: 05/11/2018
REVIEWED BY: Gerardine Sangalang
ACCURACY: The site was last updated on March 17, 2006, which was 12 years ago. It is a good website for general information but it would be a better website if it was updated.
READABILITY AND CLARITY: It is very readable but readers would have to be familiar with the vocabularies.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It is very simple and straightforward

Name of Website: Cosmology and Theology
AUTHOR: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
EVALUATE: This website is maintained by Stanford University
OVERVIEW: The website gives a broad overview of Cosmology, Theology, and Religion. It also talks about Einstein's general theory of relativity. It breaks down general topics and provides an explanation for each one.
LAST UPDATED: April 5, 2017
DATE REVIEWED: 05/12/2018
REVIEWED BY: Gerardine Sangalang
ACCURACY: This website was well updated and maintained which makes the information up to date
READABILITY AND CLARITY: The website uses vocabularies that may not be familiar with general readers. The website requires a good understanding of the subject
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It is very easy and simple to navigate

NAME OF WEBSITE: Metaphysics, Encyclopedia Britannica
AUTHOR: Bruce Wilshire, William Walsh, and others
EVALUATE: This website is maintained by
OVERVIEW: This website gives an overview of Metaphysics from the origin of the word to who and how it started.
LAST UPDATED: October 27, 2017
DATE REVIEWED: May 13, 2018
REVIEWED BY: Gerardine Sangalang
ACCURACY: The page was well updated and maintained which makes the information up to date
READABILITY AND CLARITY: It is easy to read. There are unfamiliar topics but the site explained each one very well
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It is very easy and simple to navigate

NAME OF WEBSITE: History of Cosmology in Western Civilization
AUTHOR: Bob Joseph
EVALUATE: This website is a pdf powerpoint presentation. It started with an outline of the topics and broken down to each subtopics. I am not sure if the author is a student or a professor but definitely someone with a background in Astronomy. The page was well-put together.
DATE REVIEWED: May 14, 2018
REVIEWED BY: Gerardine Sangalang
ACCURACY: The page was written by someone with a higher educational background. The infromation written was well-researched and well-explained.
READABILITY AND CLARITY: It was very easy to read. The slides helped a lot as it made reading information easier.
EASE OF NAVIGATION: It is very simple and easy to navigate

Fall 2012
Hey, My name is Baljit Kaur and I'll be editing this Cosmology page. I have found some really interesting sites that will briefing explain what is Cosmology and things that are related to it. I hope you guys enjoy going through the websites and learn something about Cosmology.

Author: Counterbalance Foundation
Last updated: 1995
Date reviewed: 10/21/12
Reviewed by: Baljit Kaur
Accuracy: The information seem to be accurate to some level because the people who wrote the website seems to take cosmology more towards religion rather than as astronomy figure.
Readability and Clarity: The audience seems to be everyone but the website focus more on religion. So I believe the writers on this website seem to pull audience to believe that cosmology is part of religion rather than being part of science or astronomy.
Ease of Navigation: It is easy to find out more about this topic. There are some related topic links attach to the websites as well as related media links.

November 18, 2012
Author: Stephen Battersby
Last updated: September 4, 2006
Date reviewed: November 18, 2012
Reviewed by: Baljit Kaur
Accuracy: The information given in this website seems accurate and it was very detailed. The fact given on this website really explain in detail what is cosmology and its relation to astronomy.
Readability and Clarity: The author probably target high school students or college students as their audience because the writing seems to be that grade level. The reading isn't hard to read.
Ease of Navigation: This website doesn't give more information about cosmology but instead it gives out links related to history of cosmology and resources. There aren't any external to this site.

Cambridge Cosmology
Author: University of Cambridge
Last updated: 1996
Date reviewed: November 18, 2012
Reviewed by: Baljit Kaur
Accuracy: There wasn't much information given on the website beside some main points that were related to cosmology.
Readability and Clarity: When I click on the main points that are listed on the website. It seems like the reading level was for high school students and college students.
Ease of Navigation: It was easy to get more information about this topic on this website. There was more pages to this pages but those pages was giving us the main points about cosmology.


Author: Patricia Schwarz
Last updated: Not listed
Date reviewed: November 18, 2012
Reviewed by: Baljit Kaur
Accuracy: The website seems to be accurate. The information provided by the author was reliable.
Readability and Clarity: The reading level on this website seems to be middle school and above. It's very easy to read.
Ease of Navigation: The website provided more information about other resources which were somewhat related to cosmology. There weren't any external to this site.


Why (Almost All) Cosmologists are Atheists
Author: Sean M. Carroll
Last updated: Not listed
Date reviewed: November 18, 2012
Reviewed by: Baljit Kaur
Accuracy: The information given seems to be accurate because it focuses on religion and science and the combination in between them.
Readability and Clarity: The audience seems to be high school students and college students. The page was not that hard to read.
Ease of Navigation: This website doesn't provide any links to other sources related to the topic and nor it has more pages beyond this page.


Cosmology: The Study of the Universe
By: author unknown
Audience: High School students +
Summary: This website provides a short and simple definition of Cosmology. Bullet points outline the definition with important facts about the topic to make the concept of cosmology easy to understand. This page also includes different tabs the reader can click on to further read about the topic. The length of the article makes it approachable for all readers, yet it accomplishes to give important information through short sentences.
Opinion: Nice and straight forward.


Frequently Asked Questions in Cosmology
By: Edward L. Wright
Audience: High school and College students
Summary: This link begins with a list of about forty of the most asked questions about Cosmology. Simply clicking on one of the blue highlighted questions will give an in-depth answer to that specific question. all of the questions are different but are some of the most asked questions when it comes to the topic of cosmology. After these questions are models, evidence and more important information given to the reader.
Opinion: This site offered the answer to many different types of questions which I found to be very helpful and informative.


A Brief History of Cosmology
By: David Wands
Audience: Students and Teachers
Summary: This site is perfect to inform the reader of the history of Cosmology. Such legendary figures such as Copernicus, Newton, and Galileo are used in great detail to describe the origin of Cosmology. Each figure is individually highlighted to provide even more information about that person with just the click of the mouse. The information is quite lengthy but it gives important information.
Opinion: For me, the site was somewhat lengthy but it is packed with useful information.

The Universe Adventure
By: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Physics Division
Audience: ALL
Summary: This witty site is composed of four sections which are the: fundamentals, evidence, eras, and final frontier. Each section provides information regarding Cosmology as well as fascinating pictures to provide a visual for the readers. At the end of each section are witty quotes that explain each concept in an amusing way. Each picture describes what the text is trying to explain which is very helpful.
Opinion: Very entertaining and contains beautiful photographs.


Cosmic Journey: A history of Scientific Cosmology
By: Center for History of Physics.
Audience: Students, teachers and all interested in Cosmology
Summary: This is an excellent website because it contains different categories to explore as well as beautiful pictures to admire. The main topic of the site is of course cosmology but there are divisions and ideas. Such ideas listed to explore are: The Mechanical Universe, The expanding Universe, The Start of Scientific Cosmology, and Big Bang or steady state. Each category is lengthy but packed with information about Cosmology.
Opinion: This is easy to understand and I liked the fact that there are so many different topics within the same topic of Cosmology discussed.