Constellations
Edited by: Maria Pacheco
Fall 2012

celest_sphere.jpg
Sky Tellers


Constellations have been around for centuries and have been used as a method to plan the planting of crops, guiding navigators on their adventures, and as well as telling time. A constellation is a grouping of stars forming a shape or pattern that is used for that specific patter, usually from Greek mythology but not always. Although the first 48 constellations were recorded by Ptolemy, the exact origins are still unknown, below is a list of the 88 constellations recognized by the IAU. At first the constellations were used to identify specific stars, as astronomers realized that the stars changed it was used as a way to name a specific area. The IAU defines a constellation by its boundary in a grid and not on the patter of the stars because of the variations it can have. There are many different constellations that are not recognized by the IAU but can be informative or just fun to read about.



No.
Abbrev.
Constellation
Genitive
English Name
Area
Hem.
Alpha Star
1
And
Andromeda
Andromedae
Andromeda
722
NH
Alpheratz
2
Ant
Antlia
Antliae
Air Pump
239
SH

3
Aps
Apus
Apodis
Bird of Paradise
206
SH

4
Aqr
Aquarius
Aquarii
Water Carrier
980
SH
Sadalmelik
5
Aql
Aquila
Aquilae
Eagle
652
NH-SH
Altair
6
Ara
Ara
Arae
Altar
237
SH

7
Ari
Aries
Arietis
Ram
441
NH
Hamal
8
Aur
Auriga
Aurigae
Charioteer
657
NH
Capella
9
Boo
Bootes
Bootis
Herdsman
907
NH
Arcturus
10
Cae
Caelum
Caeli
Chisel
125
SH

11
Cam
Camelopardalis
Camelopardalis
Giraffe
757
NH

12
Cnc
Cancer
Cancri
Crab
506
NH
Acubens
13
CVn
Canes Venatici
Canun Venaticorum
Hunting Dogs
465
NH
Cor Caroli
14
CMa
Canis Major
Canis Majoris
Big Dog
380
SH
Sirius
15
CMi
Canis Minor
Canis Minoris
Little Dog
183
NH
Procyon
16
Cap
Capricornus
Capricorni
Goat ( Capricorn )
414
SH
Algedi
17
Car
Carina
Carinae
Keel
494
SH
Canopus
18
Cas
Cassiopeia
Cassiopeiae
Cassiopeia
598
NH
Schedar
19
Cen
Centaurus
Centauri
Centaur
1060
SH
Rigil Kentaurus
20
Cep
Cepheus
Cephei
Cepheus
588
SH
Alderamin
21
Cet
Cetus
Ceti
Whale
1231
SH
Menkar
22
Cha
Chamaleon
Chamaleontis
Chameleon
132
SH

23
Cir
Circinus
Circini
Compasses
93
SH

24
Col
Columba
Columbae
Dove
270
SH
Phact
25
Com
Coma Berenices
Comae Berenices
Berenice's Hair
386
NH
Diadem
26
CrA
Corona Australis
Coronae Australis
Southern Crown
128
SH

27
CrB
Corona Borealis
Coronae Borealis
Northern Crown
179
NH
Alphecca
28
Crv
Corvus
Corvi
Crow
184
SH
Alchiba
29
Crt
Crater
Crateris
Cup
282
SH
Alkes
30
Cru
Crux
Crucis
Southern Cross
68
SH
Acrux
31
Cyg
Cygnus
Cygni
Swan
804
NH
Deneb
32
Del
Delphinus
Delphini
Dolphin
189
NH
Sualocin
33
Dor
Dorado
Doradus
Goldfish
179
SH

34
Dra
Draco
Draconis
Dragon
1083
NH
Thuban
35
Equ
Equuleus
Equulei
Little Horse
72
NH
Kitalpha
36
Eri
Eridanus
Eridani
River
1138
SH
Achernar
37
For
Fornax
Fornacis
Furnace
398
SH

38
Gem
Gemini
Geminorum
Twins
514
NH
Castor
39
Gru
Grus
Gruis
Crane
366
SH
Al Na'ir
40
Her
Hercules
Herculis
Hercules
1225
NH
Rasalgethi
41
Hor
Horologium
Horologii
Clock
249
SH

42
Hya
Hydra
Hydrae
Hydra ( Sea Serpent )
1303
SH
Alphard
43
Hyi
Hydrus
Hydri
Water Serpen ( male )
243
SH

44
Ind
Indus
Indi
Indian
294
SH

45
Lac
Lacerta
Lacertae
Lizard
201
NH

46
Leo
Leo
Leonis
Lion
947
NH
Regulus
47
LMi
Leo Minor
Leonis Minoris
Smaller Lion
232
NH

48
Lep
Lepus
Leporis
Hare
290
SH
Arneb
49
Lib
Libra
Librae
Balance
538
SH
Zubenelgenubi
50
Lup
Lupus
Lupi
Wolf
334
SH
Men
51
Lyn
Lynx
Lyncis
Lynx
545
NH

52
Lyr
Lyra
Lyrae
Lyre
286
NH
Vega
53
Men
Mensa
Mensae
Table
153
SH

54
Mic
Microscopium
Microscopii
Microscope
210
SH

55
Mon
Monoceros
Monocerotis
Unicorn
482
SH

56
Mus
Musca
Muscae
Fly
138
SH

57
Nor
Norma
Normae
Square
165
SH

58
Oct
Octans
Octantis
Octant
291
SH

59
Oph
Ophiucus
Ophiuchi
Serpent Holder
948
NH-SH
Rasalhague
60
Ori
Orion
Orionis
Orion
594
NH-SH
Betelgeuse
61
Pav
Pavo
Pavonis
Peacock
378
SH
Peacock
62
Peg
Pegasus
Pegasi
Winged Horse
1121
NH
Markab
63
Per
Perseus
Persei
Perseus
615
NH
Mirfak
64
Phe
Phoenix
Phoenicis
Phoenix
469
SH
Ankaa
65
Pic
Pictor
Pictoris
Easel
247
SH

66
Psc
Pisces
Piscium
Fishes
889
NH
Alrischa
67
PsA
Pisces Austrinus
Pisces Austrini
Southern Fish
245
SH
Fomalhaut
68
Pup
Puppis
Puppis
Stern
673
SH

69
Pyx
Pyxis
Pyxidis
Compass
221
SH

70
Ret
Reticulum
Reticuli
Reticle
114
SH

71
Sge
Sagitta
Sagittae
Arrow
80
NH

72
Sgr
Sagittarius
Sagittarii
Archer
867
SH
Rukbat
73
Sco
Scorpius
Scorpii
Scorpion
497
SH
Antares
74
Scl
Sculptor
Sculptoris
Sculptor
475
SH

75
Sct
Scutum
Scuti
Shield
109
SH

76
Ser
Serpens
Serpentis
Serpent
637
NH-SH
Unuck al Hai
77
Sex
Sextans
Sextantis
Sextant
314
SH

78
Tau
Taurus
Tauri
Bull
797
NH
Aldebaran
79
Tel
Telescopium
Telescopii
Telescope
252
SH

80
Tri
Triangulum
Trianguli
Triangle
132
NH
Ras al Mothallah
81
TrA
Triangulum Australe
Trianguli Australis
Southern Triangle
110
SH
Atria
82
Tuc
Tucana
Tucanae
Toucan
295
SH

83
UMa
Ursa Major
Ursae Majoris
Great Bear
1280
NH
Dubhe
84
UMi
Ursa Minor
Ursae Minoris
Little Bear
256
NH
Polaris
85
Vel
Vela
Velorum
Sails
500
SH

86
Vir
Virgo
Virginis
Virgin
1294
NH-SH
Spica
87
Vol
Volans
Volantis
Flying Fish
141
SH

88
Vul
Vulpecula
Vulpeculae
Fox
268
NH


Cosmobrain









The sources listed below are websites that I have checked to better assist you in looking for basic information about the 88 constellations. Each and every website listed offer various teaching methods seen through different styles of lenses. They will provide readers with useful information and will help to visualize what constellations look like. Also, they all share lots of interesting information regarding the constellations such as: the location, seasons, names, mythology, history, and much more.


The first website on the list is a great site to find out the basic information about constellations as well as stats of a specific constellation and the position that it is in.
  • The Constellation and their Stars
  • www.astro.wisc.edu
  • Milky Way
    Milky Way
  • Reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 4,2012.
  • This site seems fairly accurate because it has quite a few links connecting it to other sites with the same information.
  • I believe that it is was meant for younger audiences since it has simple words and a lot of facts about most things in a constellation.
  • The sit is simple to navigate although there are almost no pictures, everything is connected.




This next website is very informative and interesting in the information found there. there may not be as many pictures as you would hope but it does give you a table of the constellations as well as a link to its information. This site has the origin of the name, anything odd about the constellation as well as what can be find in the constellation.
  • The Constellations
  • www.debonsmith.com
  • The author is Richard Debon-Smith.
  • The page was updated March 1,2012 and reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 4, 2012.
  • The site seems very accurate by the information, having pictures for each constellation, as well as having a list of errors that were committed.
  • The intended audience are high school students by the use of higher level words to describe a constellation and having way to much information for a younger person.
  • The site was very easy to follow having the exact topic each link would lead to as well as it being organized and not in different areas of the page.






The next website is a good site if you have younger students like middle school children. Here you can make a Star finder and help younger student learn about star gazing as well as constellations and what they are.
  • Make a Star Finder
  • spaceplace.nasa.gov
  • Steps to fold the Star Finder
    Steps to fold the Star Finder
  • The NASA official for this page is Ruth Netting and the web master is Diane Fisher
  • This page was last updated May 9th, 2011 and reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012
  • I believe the site is extremely reliable considering it is from NASA.
  • This site was intended for younger students in middle school and have a creative activity to learn something new. very simple to read with no huge words that would confuse a student that young.
  • The site was simple and it had many resources that can be used to find out more information.





NASA also has another site that can help younger student to learn about the history of constellations.
  • Star Child
  • starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov
  • Distance cartoon illustrating how many light-years it is to Orion.
    Distance cartoon illustrating how many light-years it is to Orion.
  • The authors of this site are Joyce Dejoie and Elizabethe Truelove.
  • The page was last updated in May 1999.
  • I think that this site is somewhat reliable it is a part of NASA but it is not updated as often as it should be.
  • This site is intended for students in both elementary school as well as middle school with different levels for the age of the students.
  • The site was fairly easy to look through and has plenty of links to other more reliable sites.





The next website is simple but has good information as well as simple pictures to follow.
  • Constellations and Stars
  • http://www2.potsdam.edu/islamma/Phys335Constellations.htm
  • Scorpius
    Scorpius
  • The author of this site is Dr. Islam.
  • the page was last updated on June 20th, 2012 and reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012
  • The site is somewhat reliable because it seems part of an online class which would make it more reliable than some other sites.
  • The site seams to be directed toward high school students with longer paragraphs as well as more words that would need to be defined by younger students.
  • The navigation of the site was extremely easy and had just enough pictures to keep you interested as well as links to other informative sites.





This site give a description about every constellation with a picture and some background information about them as well as divides the constellation in the norther and southern hemisphere.
  • Constellations
  • Windows2Universe.org
  • external image circumpolar.jpg
  • It was last updated in September 2000 and reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012
  • The site is reliable because it has references on the pictures as well as in the text.
  • The page seems to be targeted toward any student that is simple enough to read but enough information to get a good understanding.
  • The navigation of the site was simple but had links everywhere and can get students lost it you don't know where you end up going.





The next website has a table that lists the constellations as well as when and where that can be see. It also contains pictures of the constellation and information about each one.
  • The Deep Photographic Guide to the Constellations
  • www.allthesky.com
  • Watch the big image!
    Watch the big image!
  • The authors of this page are Till Credner and Sven Kohle.
  • This page was reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012.
  • The page seem only slightly reliable, with almost no references to say where they got the information.
  • The information on this page seems to be aiming toward younger students because they have a lot more pictures than actual information but can still be enjoyed by anyone.
  • The navigation was very easy and had links to other pages.




This is also a visual tool for constellations. They dived the constellations by spring, summer, autumn and winter constellations making it easier to know what constellations are able to see during a certain time of the year. This is more for pictures since it has very little information.
  • Constellations- Seasonal Asterisms
  • http://www.ne.jp/asahi/stellar/scenes/english/seiza.htm
  • external image dipper.jpg
  • The author of the page is Naoyuki Kurita.
  • The latest update was December 28, 2009 and reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012.
  • It seemed slightly reliable but without more links it was not very informational.
  • This page can be used by any age of user because there are very few words that aren't common as well as mostly pictures.
  • The site was simple to navigate with a few links to the program used and information sites




Complete and interesting information about the constellations can be found in this site. Starting with The Origin of the Constellations, then giving a brief description of how the constellations figures were formed. It also provides the names of the constellations in English and Latin and the pronunciation in Latin and English. It shows a chart with all the information of the constellations including the names, abbreviation, and their location with a map and the coordinates. What is also useful about this site is that if the information provided in the this site is not enough they suggest other sources that they recommend .

  • International Astronomical Union - Constellations
  • www.iau.org
  • external image 004_aries.jpg
  • The website seems highly reliable because it is referred by many other website to use as a reference making it a good place to start looking for information the only problem is I was unable to find the exact name of the author or its last update.
  • This is a good site for anyone of any age to get a good source of information that is reliable and credible, as well as t having simple language with few uncommon words.
  • The site is somewhat long but has links that will give you more information that can help with understanding.





This next site shows the names of various constellations and the "archetype" so to speak of their names as well as the possessive forms, brightness, positions and etc of the constellations. There are other facts but these are just some of the highlights. But since it is a very solitary source, I would recommend using these sources in a combination that is convenient for whatever project you are pursuing To accommodate different learning styles.
  • The Constellations
  • http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/const.html

  • The author of the site is James B. Kaler.
  • The latest update was September 1, 2011 and Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012.
  • This website is somewhat reliable since they do have referances that can be checked.
  • The target audience seems to be high school students or greater with a decent understanding of the material because the site has many words that younger people wouldn't be able to understand as easy.
  • The site was fairly simply but not as interesting because of the light blue on black design.







A list of some of the many constellations and their information are provided on this website if your are interested in learning a little more about the constellations
  • Enchanted Learning
  • external image Taurus.GIF
  • The latest update was in 2010 and Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012
  • This site is very reliable having many different reference pages that you can use to find even more information.
  • The target audience are 3rd and 4th grade students to help them understand Constellations better.
  • The site is good for younger students because it is simple to follow as well as color coded to find exactly what you want to know.




This website has the names and most recognized stories for all the constellation. If interested in any further information look for the book A Field Guide to the Stars and Planets.

  • The reliability of the site is very poor with no real references that can be traced.
  • The site is intended for anyone who wants to learn just a little more about the names of constellations but with no pictures.
  • The navigation of the site is simple and can be used by any user.




A website for the most familiar and easily seen constellations from the northern sky. Learn about how they received their names and how the zodiac relates to astronomy. Designed simple for any reader and astronomer interested in constellations and the zodiac.


  • StarDate Constellation Guide
  • stardate.org
  • Aquila, the Eagle
    Aquila, the Eagle


  • The site was last updated in 2012 and reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012.
  • The reliability of the page is fair although it has almost no references it is a reference considering it is also a magazine that you can subscribe to.
  • The site is intended for any person wanting to learn more as well as a picture of what it is considered to look like and what it really looks like.
  • The navigation of the site is straight forward with no problems finding anything at all.





The mythology for all the major constellations can be found on this website. Look further into the website if interested in the mythology behind the planets as well.


  • The Mythology of the Constellations
  • http://comfychair.org/~cmbell/myth/myth.html
  • The author of the site is Cathy Bell
  • The site was reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012.
  • The reliability is very good because it has a work cited page that tells you where all the information is from like Passion for Astrology by Patrick Moore.
  • The website is intended for higher level readers in between middle school and high school it has many words that would confuse a student in elementary school.
  • The site is fair enough to navigate but the background and color of the font can hurt the eyes when you stare at it for to long.





The website is very, very, plain, but lists all known constellations, abbreviations, the names in English form, and the alpha stars. When I do click on a random constellation, it directs me to a plain white page where it shows some of the constellation information, and a picture showing what it looks like in the sky. There is also a coordinates list, with lists of numbers and numbers directing where the constellation is.


  • The Dome of the Sky
  • wwdomeof the shy.com
  • Northern Hemisphere Constellations
    Northern Hemisphere Constellations
  • The authors of the site is Arnold T. Lesikar and Professor Emeritus.
  • The site was last updated in 2010 and reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 5, 2012.
  • the reliability of the site is some what accurate having no references but the information seems to coincide with other information i found on the internet.
  • The website is intended for higher level readers because it contains harder words that younger readers would get confused with and not understand.
  • The website navigation was easy to understand but too simple to keep and interesting to read about.





I was also able to find a website that had a chart of the 88 constellations with the names of each constellation the IAU (International Astronomical Union) abbreviation, Latin name,Latin genitive or possession English name, constellation area,position in celestial sphere, and the name of the alpha star.
  • Cosmobrain Astronomy
  • Cosmobrain.com
  • uma_old.gif
  • Author is Eduardo Soares
  • Last update in 2001
  • Reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 4,2012
  • I believe this website is not as reliable as some of the others but the information is almost exact to others i found and it gives you the information in a table that is easy to read.
  • The target audience for the site seems to be at the least for high school students because it is straight forward and simple as well as gives definitions of what is being listed and named.
  • The sight is fairly simple and there are links to other sites and resources but only a few.





Another website i found helpful for younger students is from the NASA section for kids that helps them to get a basic understanding about constellations.
  • Astronomy for Kids - Learn the Constellations
  • www.astronomy.com
  • external image thesummersky_700.JPG?la=en&mw=900&mh=650

  • The author of the website is Glenn Chaple
  • Reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 4,2012
  • The reliability is very high for this website because it i know by everyone that the information given by them if fairly accurate.
  • This website is designed specifically for kids so that they can get a better understanding of a subject they want to learn about.
  • The navigation of the site is simple and has links that help to better understand not only constellations but astronomy too.






Another Link that I found was a site that showed a list of the constellations what a constellations is and lots of information on each one.
  • The 88 Astronomical Constellations
  • www.astromax.org
  • external image leo-myth.jpg

  • Reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 4,2012
  • The reliability of this page is good but without any citations or sources its hard to believe if it is trustworthy.
  • The site is aimed toward any person wanting to learn more and even for those who want to become armature astronomers as well.
  • The navigation was decent but because it was in a column it was a little hard to follow but it did have great links to more information.



A nice website I found to be informative and having interesting pictures is the next page coming up. even though it is repetitive information.
  • Constellations and Abbreviations
  • www.skyandtelescope.com
  • Farnese Atlas
    Farnese Atlas
  • The Author is tony Flanders.
  • Reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 4,2012
  • This page i believe is very reliable they did have some sources as well as it is a magazine website that is very useful.
  • This page is aimed toward people that are in high school and older because of the words used are for older people.
  • The site was easy to follow with plenty of links to other articles that are useful to understand.




The next article that i came across was that NASA also had a constellation page on their normal page for any reader to use to find information about past projects.
  • Constellations
  • www.nasa.gov
  • Orion Pad Abort 1 Launch
    Orion Pad Abort 1 Launch


  • The authors of the page are Alex Pine and Brian Dunbar.
  • The site was last updated on June 15, 2012 and reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 4,2012
  • .The reliability of this site is high because it has been around for so long with many results and is relied by everyone.
  • The site is intended for high school students who want to get understanding form a great source.
  • The navigating is not difficult for the most part but you need to click on different links to find different information because its not all on one page.






Another one of the sites I found that was interesting give you pictures as well as information that isn't hard to find and has many tools that can be used to find stars.
  • Constellation Explorer
  • www.topastronomer.com
  • Map of The Constellation of Grus
    Map of The Constellation of Grus
  • Reviewed by Maria Pacheco on December 4,2012
  • The reliability isn't all that good because it has no cited links or any references.
  • The site is intended for students in middle school or older that want a tool to find and define constellations.
  • The navigation was good but it didn't have many links to other sites.