By Waqaar Arshad, Spring 2014



Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin




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https://apps.carleton.edu/campus/observatory/research/cindystudents/1997sp/women/payne/




Background

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin was an English-American astronomer born on May 10, 1900. The youngest of three children, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin completed her studied at Cambridge where her initial interest in astronomy began, but was refused a degree due to the fact that Cambridge did not offer degrees to women during this time period. Realizing her academic goals would be stunted in the United Kingdom, Cecilia left England to attend Harvard in the United States where she became the first person to earn a PhD in astronomy. Her most notable contribution to the field of astronomy was her PhD thesis, in which she was the first person to correctly suggest that common metals seen in the sun could be found in the same amount on Earth, she also discovered that stars are almost entirely composed of hydrogen and helium.


Cecilia.jpg
Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin (1900 - 1979)
[[http://www.sheisanastronomer.org/index.php/history/cecilia-payne-gaposchkin|Sheisanastronomer.org]]

Author: Unknown. Site is maintained by Helen Walker. She is an Astronomer (SIAA) is the cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009, which is a global institute initiated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and therefore offers trustworthy information.
Overview: SIAA provides information on profiles of living and historic astronomers; resources for female astronomers, and event information.The article itself gives a brief overview of the life of Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin. It includes information about her early life growing up in England, education, scientific achievements, and how her contributions changed the face of astronomy.
Last Updated: Unknown
Date Reviewed: April 16, 2014
Reviewed By: Waqaar Arshad
Accuracy: The site is maintained by an international group of astronomers and contains information that is regularly updated. The website also does not contain any contradictory information from other sources.
Reliability and Clarity: The information is very clear, but it does briefly discuss Cecilia's experiment which requires some background knowledge in astronomy or chemistry. I would recommend the audience be at least at a high school level in order to avoid having any problems understanding the material.
Ease of Navigation: The website is very straightforward, easy to navigate, and offers links to other famous women in astronomy. However, it does not offer any more links to information on Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin.

http://web.science.mq.edu.au/~orsola/payne.jpg


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Cecilia Helena Payne-Gaposchkin
[[http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/famous-scientists/astronomers/cecilia-helena-payne-gaposchkin-info.htm|HowStuffWorks.com]]

Author: Unknown. The website is owned by Discovery Communications Inc. which is a global mass media and entertainment company and offers reliability to the information maintained on its website.
Overview: HowStuffWorks is an educational website run by a business with the goal of educating its audiences with videos, podcasts, and articles on information ranging from scientific history to geographic factoids. The article discusses the life of Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin and the struggles she had to endure as a woman in the field of astronomy, which was predominately male at the time. The article also goes into details on her experiment, through which she determined stellar temperatures, as well as how the chemical makeup of stars are mostly hydrogen and helium.
Last Updated: April 23, 2009
Date Reviewed: April 17, 2014
Reviewed By: Waqaar Arshad
Accuracy: The information appears to be accurate and up to date. There are no facts contained within it that contradict other reliable sources.
Reliability and Clarity: The information is easy to read and understand. The intended audience should be high school and above since you need a working knowledge of astronomy or chemistry in order to understand the experiment.
Ease of Navigation: The website is simple in its layout and easy to navigate. However, there are no external links or other resources of information on Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin.


http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/502/flashcards/1424502/png/absorption_lines_21334726404109.png


external image cecelia+payne+gaposchkin.jpg
Cecilia Helena Payne-Gaposchkin (1900-1979)
[[http://www.physics.ucla.edu/~cwp/Phase2/Payne-Gaposchkin,_Cecilia_Helena@861234567.html#thesis|Physics.UCLA.edu]]

Author: Unknown. Site is maintained by the University of California Los Angeles. The information should therefore be reliable since it is coming from an accredited university.
Overview: The website is designed to highlight the accomplishments of Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin. On the page are listed: where she was educated, the honorary degrees she's received, publications, every job position she’s held, and her most important contributions to the field of astronomy.
Last Updated: 1997
Date Reviewed: April 17, 2014
Reviewed By: Waqaar Arshad
Accuracy: The information appears to be accurate and trustworthy. The page is managed by the University of California Los Angeles which lends support for its value and credibility.
Reliability and Clarity: The website is simple in its design and easy to read and understand. A general audience above elementary school should not have any problem comprehending the webpage.
Ease of Navigation: The site setup is very basic and easy to traverse. The page also offers several links to more information on Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin’s publications that take you to a different section of the website.



http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-bjiYxgXKbf8/UBvh4sXi-lI/AAAAAAAAAF8/JFTc5-WCDkk/s1600/cecelia+payne+gaposchkin.jpg


external image Cecilia_Helena_Payne_Gaposchkin_%281900-1979%29_%283%29.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cecilia_Helena_Payne_Gaposchkin_(1900-1979)_(3).jpg

Gaposchkin, Cecilia Helena Payne,1900-Papers of Cecilia Helena Payne Gaposchkin: an Inventory
[[http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/~hua03004|Oasis.lib.harvard.edu]]

Author: Unknown. The website is managed by the Harvard University Library which is a highly accredited school and offers credibility to the information managed by their university.
Overview: The Harvard webpage is designed to give an in-depth look at all the major and minor events Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin underwent on a year-to-year basis. The site offers a highly extensive biography in a chronological time line format. The time line delves through each year and discusses not only major scientific breakthroughs, but also the various other achievements she’s made such as: being an elected member of American Astronomical Society in 1923, to becoming the first female department chairperson at Harvard from 1956-1960.
Last Updated: 2006
Date Reviewed: April 18, 2014
Reviewed By: Waqaar Arshad
Accuracy: The information appears to be accurate and up to date. There is no contradictory information from other reliable sources and the site is maintained by one of the top university’s in the country which gives it further authority.
Reliability and Clarity: The webpage is very simple to comprehend and is most likely intended for a general audience. Anyone at a junior high school level and above should not have any difficulties.
Ease of Navigation: The webpage is very straightforward and easy to navigate through. It also offers external links with images of Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin’s home, and hobbies such as needlepoint.


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Oral History Transcript-Dr. Cecilia Gaposchkin
[[http://www.aip.org/history/ohilist/4620.html|aip.org]]

Author: Owen Gingerich. Site is owned by the American Institute of Physics (AIP), which is a national organization that promotes science, the profession of physics, and publishes articles for the advancement of science and engineering. AIP has been involved with countless scientific programs and publications for over six decades which supports the legitimacy of the information on its website.
Overview: AIP is a website dedicated to the advancement of physics. It offers global information on physics research, student programs for young physicists, science policies taking place on Capitol Hill, and history programs to help preserve past, and current physicists. The webpage itself displays a transcript of an oral interview with Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin taken on March 5th 1968. This article is excellent because it not only discusses the obstacles and ridicule she had to overcome for her scientific contributions, but also allows an undiluted, first-hand glimpse at her innermost thoughts, and emotions during these events in her life
Last Updated: Unknown.
Date Reviewed: April 22, 2014
Reviewed By: Waqaar Arshad
Accuracy: The website is updated regularly and appears to be accurate. There are no opposing facts from other reliable sources and the article was transcribed directly from the oral interview to the written transcript which lends more support to its accuracy.
Reliability and Clarity: The information is clear and easy to understand, but Cecilia does discuss various experiments she performed both as an undergraduate and an adult. I would therefore recommend that the audience be at least in high school in order to understand the basis of the experiments and avoid any confusion with wording.
Ease of Navigation: The website is very straightforward and easy to navigate. It also offers additional information on Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin (such as autobiographies, interviews, and publications) through external links.

http://www.aauw.org/article/honoring-female-pioneers-in-science/