Recent Page Editor - Kaylyn Fitzsimmons, Fall 2016
Previous Page Editor's - Francois Casabonne April 22nd, 2014
Sean Kyle Sunga 2013,
Amber Owens Spring 2012, Katey Hilton Fall 2012

This page is intended to provide information about Black Holes. How they are formed, why it happens, and give you additional resources about Black Holes.
All in all, Black Holes are formed when a star dies and collapses, which squeezes all of its mass into a tiny space, causing the gravity to get stronger. However the gravitational force on the outside of the event horizon is the same as it was before the star collapsed, which is why Black Holes do not suck up all the matter in the galaxy.
There are different categories of Black Holes which include the following:
  • Miniature- which is believed to been caused by the start of the universe, and have a mass much smaller then our sun.
  • Stellar- made when a massive star collapses.
  • Supermassive- can have a mass equivalent to billions of suns, most likely exists in the center of galaxies, they are byproducts of galaxy formation, and continue to grow by devouring matter around them.

Below are descriptions and resources for more information on Black Holes :

No Escape: The Truth about Black Holes
This image displays the anatomy of a Black Hole. The stream of hot gas that is going through the center of the black hole are called Jets of Gas, they can be millions of light years in length and are result of charged particles flowing around the strong magnetic field in the center of the black hole. The bright orange part surrounding the center of the black hole in the picture above is called the Accretion Disk which is matter that remains close to the black hole that spirals inward. in the picture above the very center of the black hole is called the Event Horizon. if anything were to enter the Event Horizon it would be trapped forever.

This site offers an interactive lesson plan to learn the basic information about black holes and has a link to more in depth written material.

Educators' information:
Name: Paula Borinsky Hendry School: Northeast High School, Anne Arundel County, MD
Address: 1121 Duvall Highway, Pasadena, MD 21122
Years teaching: 18
E-mail address:
Areas of expertise: Chemistry and biology
Name: Greg Helms School: North County High School, Anne Arundel County, MD
Address: 10 East First Avenue, Glen Burnie, MD 21061
Years teaching: 26
E-mail address:
Area of expertise: Earth science

Scientist's information:
Name: Daniel Steinberg Institution: Space Telescope Science Institute
Address: 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218
E-mail address:
Areas of expertise: Tides and spatial and temporal gravity variations of the
Earth, Moon, and Planets; Earth rotation variations

Black Hole News:

© 1995-2012 ScienceDaily LLC

This page has all the recent news and information on black hole and many other topics of research.

The site is was created by a Candian-American science writer/ editor and his wife
in 1995. For more information see the link below.
Link to the editorial page

Black Holes- Types:

This site explains the three types of black holes from Stellar, to Supermassive, and lastly to Miniature.

The link above also explains the types of black holes in a question/answer format.

Black Holes for Dummies:
Link to credits page:

This is a good website to get more information about black holes. Go into detail without confusing the average student.

The Power of Black Holes:

This is a computer created video of a Black Hole destroying a middle sized star. It is easy to follow and gives a good image of what a black star is and what it does.
Uploaded by SlipknotRevan on Jan 29, 2007

The Largest Black Holes in the Universe:

Image from

The page above is from a youtube channel with the name of SpaceRip. He provides us with very interesting video's about black holes and super massive black holes. Everyone learns in different ways and if reading is not for you than this video will give you lots of very useful information. If you look at other videos SpaceRip has uploaded you will not only find other videos on black holes but astronomy topics in general. A great way to mix up your research on black holes!

What are Black Holes Anyway?:

If you are trying to teach a younger audience about black holes or just want an easy to understand site to help you this is the page for you. It is NASA's attempt to make astronomy more interesting to kids. It does not have a lot but it does have the basics.

Black Holes and Time Travel:
Bonsor, Kevin, and Robert Lamb. "How Time Travel Works" 20 October 2000.

A very well organized site that explains how black holes effect gravity and time. No need to be an expert in physics to understand the article but after you are done reading it you very well could sound like and expert. Lots of information that is easy to find and easy to digest. A must look for any one curious about black holes.

Black Holes Explained:

Photo: Possible intermediate-mass black hole
Photo: Possible intermediate-mass black hole

This site gives a slighty detailed explanation, but makes it easy to understand. It is easy to navigate and I would recommend it to get a detailed overall review of Black Holes.

Black Holes Explanation (Narrated):

Some of the world's most famous physicists and astronomers (well as famous as physicists and astronomers can get) explain the phenomena that is black holes. A great alternative resource for those of us who do not like reading. Just click and listen.

Black Holes to Blackboards: God Divided by Zero
Author- Jeffrey F. Lockwood

This author is a teacher writing to other teachers. He explains how traditional explanations of black hole models can confuse more than help. He explains how certain "hands on" activities are a fun way to show how the laws of physics apply to black holes. You might not be a teacher but these activities and explanations help make some pretty confusing concepts approachable and even a little fun.

Beyond Einstein "What Happens to Space, Time, and Matter at the Edge of a Black Hole?":

This site offers a brief explanation of how black holes relate to Einstein's general theory of relativity and how the formation and growth of massive black holes play a role in the evolution of galaxies. An interesting site to help put black holes in context but not the best place to start learning about them.

Windows to the Universe:
Last modified May 6, 2008 by Randy Russell

This website is a fantastic place to start learning about black holes. It covers the basics and is easy to read. You will not get an in depth explanation of black holes though so if your looking for specifics this is not the site for you.

Curious About Astronomy? Ask An Astronomer "Black holes & Quasars":
Last modified: December 15, 2011 9:47:01 PM

This website clearly lays out the information with great detail going into depth on the topics chosen. Also giving a complete description on what, how, where and a why as to why black holes exist. Making it easy to get a good idea of what they're trying to explain. I especially liked when they explained the history on how we came to know about black holes. This website proved to be very factual and not as visual as the others. Not bad but not one of my favorites.

Ask an Astrophysicist:
The Imagine Team
Project Leader: Dr. Jim Lochner
Curator:Meredith Gibb
Responsible NASA Official:Phil Newman
All material on this site has been created and updated between 1997-2010.
Last Updated: Tuesday, 24-Aug-2010 16:33:58 EDT
This site is organized into frequently asked questions. If you have a specific question on your mind this site is a fantastic resource to find a specific answers.

"Gravity's Relentless Pull":
Too Many People worked on site so here is the credits page:

This site has a lot of information posted in a fun and interesting way, but is a little confusing to navigate at first. Look for the tab at the top labeled "Journey to a black hole" and start there.

“The resulting black hole is the darkest black in the universe.” This website talks about how if you could squeeze a ball of light into the palm of your hand, you would have black hole, perhaps. Although the human body is not able to do such a thing the forces of nature are quite capable of it. The mysteries of space are just that, mysteries of space. I really liked the Einstein, section of the page. There were a lot of helpful links that I was able to click and be directed to amazing websites.

"Black Holes Do They Really Exist?":
Links to the credits fot this site

This site offers the many different asspects of black holes organized into easy to understand sections.

No Escape: The Truth About Black Holes

sources and authors listed on bottom of site page.
Sections are divided up into questions about black holes. These questions are at the top of the page and include a clickable link to bring you directly to that section.

The Tricky Task of Detecting Black Holes

By Sara Goudarzi
Staff Writer
posted: 21 February 2007
06:02 am ET
This website states that “A black hole is an object so compact that, within a certain distance of it, even the speed of light is not fast enough to escape… A star with a mass greater than twenty times that of our sun” This website clearly lays out the information with great detail going into depth on the topics chosen. Also giving a complete description on what, how, where and a way as to why black holes exist. Making it easy to get a good idea of what they're trying to explain. I especially liked when they explained the history on how we came to know about black holes. This website proved to be very factual and not as visual as the others. Not bad but not one of my favorites.


Author of site Ted Bunn
last updated 1995

This is a a pretty good website to visit for information on black holes. I like it because it answers some of the most frequently asked questions that most people have about black holes. The one notion that did stand out the most to me was the fact that the description and explanation of black holes is relatively hard to follow unless you are able to understand most of the the vocabulary with prior knowledge or a great dictionary. This website does give you other vital facts and statistics such as how large black holes can reach in size and explains what would happen if a person was to fall into a black hole. This was information that did not seem to be covered very well in the above website. If you have taken an astronomy class before, than you will not have a problem understanding this website and you will actually notice that some of the questions asked are covered in the class discussions. This is what makes this website reliable; the information given matches to the information learned in the classroom. However, there is a downside to this website. It does seem as though the website was randomly put together at the last minute and it does not seem that the author of the website was into wanting to make the page creative and interesting, but rather straight to the point. Some of the frequently asked questions seem very random in the order they were placed in and when looking at the information, it feels that it does not flow very well. If you can get past the unorganized format though, this is a great website to visit. This website was intended for audiences with little schema on black holes. Even though this is a great website to visit, the author, Ted Bunn, has not updated this website since September of 1995.

What NASA Has To Say About Black Holes:
Info on those that worked on site can be found at the bottom of the page link provided above.

Last Updated: Monday, 03-Jan-2011 14:31:54 EST
I found this web site pretty useful. The one complaint I do have about this website that I noticed immediately was the word choice. Some of the information used to describe the black holes and what they are is rather complex and a little hard to understand if you have no prior knowledge to black holes. However, if you have a little knowledge about black holes, this website is relatively clear and simple to follow. The other concept I really liked about this website is that it has highlighted words that you can click on if you are having a hard time comprehending what the page is trying to describe to its readers. It clearly defines what certain ideas and objects in astronomy are. This makes up for the vague description of what certain objects like solar masses and white dwarfs are. The other concept on this website that I really liked is at the end. It gives visitors more references to consult for more information on black holes. I also liked the fact that it is part of NASA's information center. This makes it more reliable. Overall, this is a good website to visit for information on black holes, but personally, I would not use it for a report because the wording is very complex and it would make it rather hard to put all the information into one's own words. It is great for a short reference though and very reliable. This website was created for an audience that has a better understanding of what exactly black holes are. I believe this to be true because the authors were Dr. Jim Lochner, Meredith Gibb, and Phil Newman and it was last updated in September 2006. So the information is recent and reliable, it is just being able to comprehend what is being said.

All About Black Holes:

This site has been updated it is now 2012 and there are informational videos and enough info to give you a good view on what a black hole is. It
has plenty of links to other resources and good videos.

Black Holes and Beyond:
NCSA. Last modified 11/16/95.
This website explains blacks holes related to Einstein's theory and if the arrows at the bottom are followed goes through how a black hole is born, and the anatomy of a black hole. It also has highlighted links to click on so the visitor can learn more about other items of interest such as the Big Bang and how the cosmos began.This was not the greatest website for information. It was great if the student or researcher was looking to explain how Einstein's theories relate to space, specifically black holes.

What gives it gravity?:

This website was more focused on the describing what makes up a black hole such as what gravity is and who discovered and when. Another major subject that I noticed was not mentioned was the event horizon. Thought that if the author was discussing gravity in a black hole, he should have mentioned the event horizon and the effect it has on objects in space that can become stuck and sucked into a black hole. Another major observation I made about the website was that it was not the simplest and clearest information provided. After reviewing this website, I came to the conclusion that this website was never intended for an audience with little knowledge about black holes, astronomy, or physical science. It was rather intended for an audience with more experience in the physical science field of education and a good understanding of how objects like gravity already work. The last time this website was updated was not given, but the author of the website was Mike Guidry. I would personally suggest to other students not to use this website for research on black holes.

A crisis in quantum physics:
John Preskill
Caltech Theory Seminar, 21 October 1994

An edited transcript of a seminar about Black holes and informatoin: A Crisis in quantum physics. This goes into specific detail about black holes and other information surrounding the subject.

The Evidence of Things Not Seen:
by Jason Lisle
December 7, 2007

This is a great site for visual learners, this particular article, 'Black Holes: Evidence Of Things Not Seen' written by Jason Lisle "Black holes are real phenomena in our universe. These massive objects produce such a strong gravitational pull that not even light can escape."

Monster Black Holes Are Most Massive Ever Discovered:
By Charles Q. Choi, Contributor | – Mon, Dec 5, 2011

Most massive black holes ever discovered:

By Charles Q. Choi
These are news articles both by the same author but have two different newscasts covering it describing a recent discovery of Black Holes. They are easy to understand and discuss current progress of finding out new information on Black Holes.

NGC 3842, shown in the background image, is the brightest galaxy in a rich cluster of galaxies. The black hole is at its center and is surrounded by stars (shown as an artist's concept in the central figure). The black hole is seven times larger than Pluto's orbit. Our solar system (inset) would be dwarfed by it.
(Credit: Pete Marenfeld)

NASA: What is a Black Hole?

To the point summary about Black Holes, written so elementary students will understand but includes all the basic information about Black Hole and how they are formed.

Page Last Updated: December 30, 2009
Page Editor: Shelley Canright
NASA Official: Brian Dunbar

Black Holes for the Youth
No info on who helped create the site.
This website is designed for kids who are interested in the formation and common categories discussed about black holes. A great way to learn the basics in a short amount of time.
All Pages And Content Copyrighted By© 1998-2012

Black holes in M22
Black holes in M22

Bad neighbors?:
Last updated: October 12, 2012
Author: John Matson
Date reviewed: December 7, 2012
Reviewed by: Katey Hilton
Scientific American has multiple articles such as the one above related to science of any kinds. It's a site that keeps up with recent scientific discoveries in an easy to read, journalistic fashion. The section for black holes has many interesting and up to date articles, such as the one above about what would happen if two black holes happened to be in near distance of each other.

The Official String Theory- Black Holes made easy:

The Official String Theory--> Black Holes
Last updated: Roughly 2010
Author: Patricia
Date reviewed: December 7, 2012
Reviewed by: Katey Hilton
This site is run primarily by a scientist who writes scientific blogs by the name of Patricia. Her section on black holes is an easy to read and well explained, and thoroughly explains what a black hole actually IS with any average person understanding it. Her actual blogs are very entertaining, the link for them is right here, called Write Brain: [[|]]

NGC 3245
NGC 3245

Star Date- Up to Date Black Hole Encyclopedia:

Star Date
Last updated: 2011
Producer: Rebecca Johnson, among many other contributors to the site
Date reviewed: December 7, 2012
Reviewed by: Katey Hilton
This site is a scientific site that keeps up with scientific news as it happens. On this site, there is a black hole encyclopedia page that not only explains the concept of black holes and their science, but also keeps anyone interested in new black holes being found in our universe, any research known about existent black holes, and a few other bonuses, such as videos and black holes as seen in pop culture.

Curious About Astronomy? Ask an Astronomer
Last updated: December 15, 2011
Author: Unknown
Date reviewed: December 9, 2012

This site is run by the science department at Cornell University. This site is full of information about subjects people are usually "curious" about, in this case, this particular page is about our black hole. It explains the theories of black holes, their origins and how they work, along with quasars on the same page. It talks about the black hole in the center of our galaxy, the Milky Way. At the end of the page, it gives other links that they recommend for further research on black holes/quasars. Besides the redundant title, it is a nice summary about anything you need to know on black holes.

Advanced Mathematics of Black Hole Evaporation:
Published by the Oracle Education Foundation
Last reviewed on May 16th, 2013

This site discusses the life expectancy of Black Holes using complex mathematics by calculating it's energy or mass. This site is useful for calculating when Black Hole's will evaporate by calculating their Hawking's radiations.

This equation calculates the lifetime of a Black Hole if it were given the same mass of our Sun.

Does the center of the universe contain a Black Hole?:
Published by © Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy Group at MPE
Last updated on 07/10/2002, by author Thomas Ott
Last reviewed on May 16th, 2013

This site in essence, explains whether there is a massive black hole, when and where the stars were born, the nature of these stars and lastly, the dynamics in this region. This proves significant when studying the Black Hole that seems to be in the center of the universe.

Does the center of the universe contain a Black Hole?: Part 2
Published by the European Southern Observatory
By authors R.Genzel and S. Gillessen
Last reviewed on May 16th, 2013

This site provides a video of a 16 year long study tracking the movements of stars orbitting the Black Hole ESO 0846. This site gives great visuals on the movement of stars near ESO.

This photograph is from the video linked above comparing the pictures from various years and tracking their movements.

Can a Cosmic Flash Birth Black Holes?:
Published by the Institute of Physics
Last updated on May 13th, 2013, by author Ian Randall
Last reviewed on May 16th, 2013

This site explains how some Black Holes may be caused by a cosmic flash in complex details, not advised for novice astronomers. (Viewers must be educated in Astronomy and understand the basics of cosmic flashes, electromagnetic radiation, etc.)

Do they impact galaxies?:
Published by the National Institute for Computational Sciences
By author Scott Gibson
Last reviewed on May 16th, 2013

This site provides information on how powerful Black Holes are and how they could greatly impact a galaxy or galaxies. It is important to understand how they could impact how galaxies seeing as how we as humans live on one ourselves.


Black Holes: Gravity's Relentless Pull
Author: Roeland van der Marel, STScI

This site Provides information on Black Holes. The site has many interactive video simulations where you are in a spaceship traveling through space looking for Black Holes. When you first enter the site it plays an introductory video giving you some brief information on Black Holes and how they are formed. you can find out about the nature of Black HOles and the formation and existence of Black Holes on this web site.
  • Last Update: Unknown
  • Date Reviewed: May 12, 2014
  • Reviewed by: Francois Casabonne
  • Accuracy: This Site seems to be pretty accurate and up to date with the information it provides to you. This site also won the top prize 2005 Pirelli award for best multimedia presentation in science and technology and first prize in the physics category.
  • Reliability and Clarity: The audience for this site is all ages. The videos the site provides can be fun for little kids and easy for them to understand and same goes for adults. The reading on the site doesn't have complicated words for children to understand and its not too simplified so an adult would also enjoy the reading.
  • Ease of Navigation: The site is pretty easy to navigate from page to page.

Nasa Science: Astrophysics - Black Holes
Author: NASA

This site provides information on Black Holes. The site talks about how Black Holes are formed and how scientists can detect a Black Hole. The site provides you with links to other articles that discuss one topic on Black Holes. The site also provides you with information about the different sizes of Black Holes. One last thing this site provides for you is a list of recent discoveries of Black Holes in the Universe.
  • Last Update: Unknown
  • Date Reviewed: May 12, 2014
  • Reviewed by: Francois Casabonne
  • Accuracy: The information this site provides you with is accurate. The sites information is straight from NASA providing you with a sure feeling that everything you read is true on this site.
  • Reliability and clarity: The audience for this website would be more for an older group more college student and adults would read from this website. the information that the site provides for you is pretty easy to understand and read with not too many challenging words.
  • Ease of Navigation: The site just has one page with some links to other articles discussing more on Black Holes. So its a easy site to navigate through.


How Black Holes Work
Author: Craig freudenrich, Ph. D.

This site provides us with information on how Black Holes work. The site opens with a little introduction on Black Holes. On the next page the site provides you with whats is a Black Hole and explains a little history on Black Holes. On the third page the site provides you with the different types of Black Holes and has a little quiz you can take on the bottom. On the last page of the site it provides us with information on how we detect Black Holes by showing us pictures of where black holes exist in the universe and what proof they have to back it up.
  • Last Update: Unknown
  • Date Reviewed: May 12, 2014
  • Reviewed by: Francois Casabonne
  • Accuracy: From what i read on this site everything seems to be accurate compared to information that i've read from other Black Hole sites. Towards the bottom of the site there is also a place where you can comment and from reading the comments everyone was satisfied by this sites information on Black Holes.
  • Reliability and Clarity: The audience for this website would be high school students, college students, and adults. The information that the site provides is easy to understand and isn't too difficult to read.
  • Ease of Navigation: There are 5 pages to this article. It is easy to navigate from one page to the next by clicking the arrow to proceed to the next page or clicking a number to skip pages.

European Astronomers spot pair of Super Massive Black Holes.
Author: Brooks Hays

This site provides us information about two european astronomers that discovered two super massive black holes ripping apart a star, which is a very rare sighting. They were able to spot the black hole by their orbiting X-Ray observatory XMM-Newton.
  • Last Update: Unknown but it was put up on April 23, 2014
  • Date Reviewed: May 12, 2014
  • Reviewed by: Francois Casabonne
  • Accuracy: This being a news article in the UPI under science news the information that the article provides you with on the discovery of the Super Massive Black Holes is pretty trustworthy and seems to check out.
  • Reliability and Clarity: The audience for this article i would say could be all ages. The article is pretty straight forward, and isn't very hard to understand when reading through it.
  • Ease of Navigation: Being an Article with only one page, navigating through it is easy.

How Black Holes Shape Galaxies
Author: Royal Astronomical society, United Kingdom

In this article it discusses how a group of astronomers found a relativity simple relationship between the color of galaxies and how big they are with how massive the Black Hole is in the middle of the Galaxy.
  • Last Update: Unknown
  • Date Reviewed: May 12, 2014
  • Reviewed by: Francois Casabonne
  • Accuracy: Being an article in Astronomy Magazine the information that they present seems to be accurate and a good theory that these group of astronomers have come up with.
  • Reliability and Clarity: The audience for this article could be all ages. The article is easy to understand and doesn't use complicated words that a younger reader would have trouble reading or understanding.
  • Ease of Navigation: Since its an article with only one page, navigating through the article is easy.