By Vincent Hoeschen, Spring 2012
Jordann Tatum, Fall 2012

Aristotle

Aristotle: portrait bust
Aristotle: portrait bust

Roman copy of a Greek original (c. 325bc); in the Museo Nazionale Romano, RomeThis bust was sculpted a few years before his death, so it should represent a somewhat accurate rendition of Aristotle.




Background

Aristotle was an acclaimed teacher, scientist, philosopher, and humanitarian. Born in Greece in 384 BC, Aristotle was raised in Macedonia, where his father was the personal doctor to King Amyntas. By age eighteen, Aristotle was sent to Athens to study at Plato's Academy, where he would spend twenty years learning from one of the greatest philosophers of Ancient Greece. After studying at the Academy, Aristotle would go on to make tremendous contributions to biology, medicine, politics, economics, philosophy, ethics, and so much more. Aristolte's main focus was on moderation, where life is all about finding a balance and avoiding extremes to become a virtuous individual. He is the creator of a system of thinking that has effected Christian Scholasticism, Medieval Islamic Philosophy, the Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment, (Britannica). This page is established for those who wish to know more about his life, philosophical teachings, and scientific findings. The links below will help to create a better understanding of what Aristotle has taught and is still effecting the world more than 2,000 years later.


Aristotle


French Colored Engraving. Aristotle.jpeg
Aristotle, French Colored Engraving

Author: Kevin Knight
Last Updated: 2009
Date Reviewed: October 28, 2012
Reviewed by: J. Tatum

Accuracy: This work is extensively cited. Many of the words in the text will send the reader to their definition, and this source is very credible as it is the official website for The Catholic Encyclopedia. There is extensive information about Aristotle’s life, philosophy, the Aristotelean school, and his writings. The information appears to be up to date and does not contradict other pages I have read.

Audience: This page is a little more complex to read than some of the more basic pages, and it is also a bit lengthy. I would recommend this page to advanced high schoolers and college students for accurate research assignments.

Navigation: This site contains the entire encyclopedia and allows one to view the other articles by browsing through the letter or through a specific search. There are various other resources on this page such as their bible and a library. This long article is divided by subheadings that make it a bit easier to skim through and read what is relevant to what one might be interested in reading or researching.




Aristotle

Aristotle-Francesco_Hayez_001.jpeg
Aristotle by Franceso Hayez

Author: Anselm H. Amadio, Anthony J.P. Kenny, etc.
Last Updated: 2012
Date Reviewed: October 28, 2012
Reviewed by: J. Tatum

Accuracy: This site receives quite a bit of traffic and keeps its information up to date and credible. This site is based off of the information from the Encyclopaedia Britannica. The page is designed with experts as the main editors to maintain the credibility of the site, but there is an option that allows certain others to add or update information in the articles. This allows the page to be constantly updated while still being accurate and up to their standards of knowledge.

Audience: This site is intended for general audiences for research or personal intrigue. It can be used from grade school to adult life. It discusses complicated topics such as philosophy and metaphysics, but the general information is useful for lower levels of learning while higher education can still benefit from the article. The information is very clear, and if a topic is not understood one can look it up on a link that may be provided on the more complex articles or articles that are also in the encyclopaedia. It is a very lengthy article, but contains relevant and factual information about every facet of Aristotle's life and studies.

Navigation: This site gives access to the other articles in the encyclopaedia by browsing, searching, or by selecting words in the article that lead to other pages. The links stay within the same main site.



Aristotle- Greek Philosopher Aristotle


Rembrandt. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer.jpeg
Aristotle by Rembrandt

Author: N.S. Gill
Last Updated: 2012
Date Reviewed: October 28, 2012
Reviewed by: J. Tatum

Accuracy: This site lists various resources that support what is said in this article showing that it is accurate. It is consistent in his history and background with the other articles I have read. I can conclude that what is said is true and useful.

Audience: This page is really basic and gives a brief overview of Aristotle's life. I would recommend it to elementary to junior high aged students as well as someone with a lower reading level or someone who merely wants an overview.

Navigation: This page offers links within itself that send the reader to other pages on the site related to the text within the article. Above the article is a row of related topics that can be read, and there is another list of related articles and resources at the bottom. This article is arranged with brief paragraphs under headings that make it easy for the reader to find needed information.




Aristotle and Virtue Ethics: "A Bibliographical Survey of Aristotle and Virtue Ethics"

Justus of Ghent. Aristotle.jpeg
Aristotle by Justus of Ghent

Author: Various
Last Updated: February 18, 2012
Date Reviewed: November 26, 2012
Reviewed by: J. Tatum

Accuracy: This page has many articles and resources on it; multimedia, audio files, lectures, and text. This page is from an ethics class' course materials from San Diego State University showing that this information is valuable and credible. Most of the resources are college lectures relevant to this course. The text towards the end is from an actually book written by Lawrence M. Hinman.

Audience: This page is aimed towards a collegiate and educator level of intellect. Many of the articles are about Aristotle's various theories and topics of virtue and ethics which are deep subjects that require a lot of thought and critical thinking.

Navigation: There are many resources and links within this page that lead to other resources and articles and lectures. The top bar has tabs where you can browse other theories and resources on ethics.









Aristotle

paperdikam.jpeg
Detail of School Of Athens by Raphael

Author: University of Washington
Last Updated: January 4, 2008
Date Reviewed: November 26, 2012
Reviewed by: J. Tatum

Accuracy: This page is an essay from the University of Washington's Philosophy class. I would assume that everything said would accurate, although some opinion and impressions by the teacher would be included. It is very lengthy and contains a lot of information about Aristotle's life and his philosophies on life.

Audience: It is intended for College level audiences; as it is for a college class. I would also recommend it to high schooler's that are able to muscle through the information and the long winded biography of his life.

Navigation: The only link on this page returns to the title page for this course's information. It's very straight forward in navigation and simple in layout. It focusses on the material


Historical Astronomy: Ancient Greeks: Aristotle

http://ancientwisdomformodernproblems.blogspot.com/2009/10/7-days-of-week-and-7-planets_12.html
http://ancientwisdomformodernproblems.blogspot.com/2009/10/7-days-of-week-and-7-planets_12.html

Author: David McClung
Last Updated: February 11, 2003
Date Reviewed: May 3, 2012
Reviewed by: V. Hoeschen

Accuracy: The information from this source looks to be accurate because it gives a descriptive explanation of Aristotle's geocentric solar system, while providing credible sources to articles from the MIT college website. For example, when the author explains Aristotle's reasoning for planets moving in perfect circles, he writes, "Aristotle believes that the objects in the heavens are perfect and unchanging. Since he believes that only eternal motion is circular with a constant speed, the motions of the planets must be circular," (Paragraph 6). Aristotle believed in the accepted thought of the time that heaven was perfect; therefore the planets must move in perfect circles. The overall article summarizes the work of Aristotle and provides credible information to its readers.

Audience: The audience for this site would be one that has the reading level of a middle school or high school student. This site is easy to understand, and provides easily grasped concepts. One can get a basic idea of Aristotle's model of the solar system from this site.
The Flesch Reading Ease scale scored this page at 59 which is around the average of most documents. While there are some words that may be hard to pronounce, the concept of this site is very clear and gives a basic description for those who have no knowledge of Aristotle's contributions to astronomy.

Navigation: On this site, there are pages that describe other Greek astronomers like Pythagoras, Strato, and Aristarchus. At the bottom of the Aristotle page, there are other links that relate to specific works of his; in metaphysics and his contributions to biology. These links take you to new sites where one can easily find out more than what is presented here and can develop a well-rounded knowledge of Aristotle.

Aristotle & Aristarchus

http://greaterlearning.org/astronomy/Astronomy-And-Aristarchus.html
http://greaterlearning.org/astronomy/Astronomy-And-Aristarchus.html

Author: Paul Marquard
Last Updated: June 6, 2001
Date Reviewed: May 5, 2012
Reviewed by: V. Hoeschen

Accuracy: This site provides accurate information about two different models of the solar system. The first model is Aristotle's geocentric solar system and the author explains that Aristole used parallax to explain why earth was at the center of the solar system. Aristotle used parallax to argue that if the earth moved through the universe, stars nearby would also move and earth would not be at the center. Also, the author writes that Aristotle believed in a round earth rather than a flat earth. Aristole studied the earth's shadow druing lunar eclipses and noticed the shadows of the earth are always round. Therefore, Aristotle concluded the earth must have a spherical shape. The next section explains Aristarchus' model of the solar system and the author writes that Aristarchus believed in a heliocentric solar system. Aristarchus developed a method to find the relative size of the earth, sun, and moon and found that the sun is bigger than earth. Since the earth was smaller, Aristarchus was not convinced that a large object like the sun would orbit a smaller object like the earth. Therefore, Aristarchus believed the earth orbited around the sun and although this was about 100 years after Aristotle, no one accepted Aristarchus' theory because it contradicted Aristotle's model.

Audience: Overall, this site is easy to read and anyone with some level of education can have a better understanding of Aristotle and Aristarchus. The Flesch Reading Ease scale gave a score of 66.3 for this page, which means it is within the average of most documents. The audience for this site would mostly be high school students because the author gives a basic description of the theories of Aristotle and Aristarchus and describes the reasoning behind each theory. This site would also be helpful to anyone who has little knowledge of astronomy and would want to find out more about the theories of the solar system and how they have changed over time.

Navigation: Besides this page, there are other links on the website that can take you to other pages, like Terrestrial Planets or the Milky Way. These pages are all part of the website and you can easily find out more information about the solar system and compare the different models that were made over time. Also, if you want to learn more about science in general, there is a page about the scientific method and the steps involved in designing an experiment.

Aristotle's Political Theory
http://www.asiaing.com/aristotles-politics-a-treatise-on-government.html
http://www.asiaing.com/aristotles-politics-a-treatise-on-government.html

Author: Fred Miller
Last Updated: January 26, 2011
Date Reviewed: May 5, 2012
Reviewed by: V. Hoeschen

Accuracy: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosphy is one of the most credible sources one can use when researching Aristotle. This page focuses specifically on Aristotle as a political scientist and his writings on political theory and government. This page is accurately cited with sources at the bottom of the page that can easily be looked up. This adds credibility to the page. An example of the accuracy on this page would be Aristotle's classification of the six types of government. Under the section, "General Theory of Constitutions and Citizenship," there is a table that lists the six types of government, with three being correct, and three being deviant. The table on the page is accurate because Aristotle believed there are three correct governments that are balanced and promote just the rulers. These three are the Monarchy, Aristocracy, and Polity. The other three governments are deviant because they are unjust and do not promote good citizenship and balanced laws. The three deviant governments are Tyranny, Oligarchy, and Democracy. The overall page provides a detailed analysis of Aristotle's political theory and is an ideal source for anyone doing research on political philosophy.

Audience: The audience for this page would be readers with a high reading level, like adults and college students. Philosophy is a difficult subject and it takes a lot of critical thinking to understand the works of philosophers. The Flesch Reading Ease scale scored this page at 50, which is well below the average of most documents. But while this site may not be ideal for everybody, it is an organized site for those interested in political theory and have at least a high school reading level.

Navigation: "Aristotle's Political Theory" is a very organized page because it is broken up into sections and there is a table of contents where one can click on a title and automatically be taken to that section of the page. It is easy to move up and down on this page and if you want to find out more about Aristotle, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has a search bar where you can type in specific information about Aristotle or any other philosopher. Also, the bottom of this page has a bibliography, where you can reference other sources and expand your research on other works of Aristotle.

Aristotle Atomic Theory
Aristotle Atomic Theory
Aristotle Atomic Theory

Author: Jerry Coffey
Last Updated: April 12, 2010
Date Reviewed: May 5, 2012
Reviewed by: V. Hoeschen

Accuracy: The information on this page is accurate because it explains how Aristotle's atomic theory is made up of the four elements: earth, air, fire, and water. This is accurate because Aristotle did not believe in the other Greek theories of atoms being in constant motion and having different shapes. The author writes that Aristotle was not able to see an atom in motion and therefore developed a theory based on what he knew. While Aristotle's theory may not be correct in today's world, it was used for nearly 2000 years because the ancients always believed what Aristotle had to say, since he was a man ahead of his time. Aristotle's atomic theory also shows the evolution of science because as time went on, other scientists have acquired more knowledge and technology to test new theories and change our way of thinking.

Audience: This site is pretty easy to read and develop an understanding of Aristotle's atomic theory. The author does a good job explaing the basic idea of Aristotle's theory and why it lasted for over 2000 years. The audience for this site would be individuals with a good education background and some understanding of atoms, like high school and college students. Adults can also use this site as a reference, even if they are not in school anymore. The Flesch Reading Ease scale scored this page at 60.3, which is just inside the average of most documents. Although this site may not be very detailed, it goes over the main points of Aristotle's theory and can help someone learn the early theories of atoms. Also, one is able to learn how science is more than just getting the right answer. Science is an ongoing process and there is always something new to learn, even if it means replacing a 2000 year old theory.

Navigation: There may not be a lot of detailed information on this page, but the author does mention other sources where you can find more information about Aristotle's atomic theory. There are certain words throughout the page, and you can click on these words and they will take you to another page with more detailed information about atoms and the philosophy of matter. Overall, this site is easy to navigate and look up more information about the universe.

Aristotle's Zoology
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Aristotle/HistoryOfAnimals/HistoryOfAnimals.html
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Aristotle/HistoryOfAnimals/HistoryOfAnimals.html

Author: Martyn Shuttleworth
Last Updated: 2010
Date Reviewed: May 10, 2012
Reviewed by: V. Hoeschen

Accuracy: This page is about the study of biology in Ancient Greece. Besides Aristotle, there were many other Greeks who had an interest in studying different species, such as Anaximander and Theophrastes. This site is accurate because it mentions Aristotle as the father of biology and his systematic approach to classify different species. Aristotle was fascinated with the natural world and his research involved comparing different species in order to classify the similarities and differences between them. The author has clearly done good research on this topic and has made the site a trustworthy source for all.

Audience: The audience for this site would be people with a good education background, like college students and adults. This site has a pretty advanced vocabulary and it can be difficult with some of the Greek names. But anyone with a basic understanding of biology would find this site helpful because it goes back to the beginning of biology and explains the evolution of scientific research over time.
The Flesch Reading Ease scale scored this page at 61.2, which is just inside the average of most documents. Overall, the author gives a clear explanation of Aristotle's contributions to biology and gives the reader an idea of the research methods used in Ancient Greece.

Navigation: Beyond this page, there is much more to find about Aristotle and his contributions to science. This website is all about the different methods of research and one can easily look up other useful information, such as the scientific method, history of science, and how to design an experiment. While this may not be directly related to Aristotle, there are other pages on this website that provide useful information about scientific research. The overall navigation is easy to use and one can easily shift from one page to another to learn more about science in Ancient Greece.


Other Sites Related to Aristotle:

Publishing date: unknown (last modification date: 2006. Date of reading: Novemeber 29th, 2011)
Author: Stefan Stenudd
This site is primarily a timeline of events happening in Greece before, during, and after Aristotle's life. This is helpful to anyone seeking the dates of when Aristotle had a big event and/or discovery. This site is also helpful to find potential crossover dates, if you are attempting to discover if Aristotle was around during the same time as another individual. It would be helpful to know the layout of Greece, if you want a more precise understanding of where some of the important historical events took place.
Publishing date: unknown (date of reading: November 29th, 2011)
Author: Not specified
For all who are seeking a breakdown of Aristotle's teachings in all the different categories, this is the place. This site will share insights about happiness, education, ethics, metaphysics, and politics; as well as a brief history of Aristotle's childhood.
This site also contains a brief history about Aristotle's school that he founded and how it came about.
Publishing date: unknown (date of reading: November 29th, 2011)
Author: Not specified
This website is a simple breakdown of Aristotle's basic life events, and also contains a list of some of his writings (note: they are not available to read, but to see what the titles are). This site will also have links to view other philosophers who had an affect on Aristotle, such as Socrates and Plato. This would be a good start for those looking to learn about his life, but not necessarily his teachings. This site will have a short history of where Aristotle came from and what he did, but not his teachings.
Publishing date: unknown (date of reading: December 4th, 2011)
Author: Garth Kemerling
This site is a great site focused to the teachings of Aristotle's ethics and values, more than it is about his teachings of math and science. This is also great if you want to know about his views on relationships and how to treat friends, family, and others. There is also a link to learn about virtue and knowledge.
Publishing date: July, 1997 (date of reading: December 4th, 2011)
Author: Johannes Morsink
This is a site that is dedicated to Aristotle's views on women. This site will discuss gender roles in the way that Aristotle established them, and whether or not he was sexist. There are claims that were made saying that women were "inferior" to men by way of biology, however, Aristotle also claimed that women's happiness is essential for society to fully function and to experience full happiness. The idea of feminism as relayed from Aristotle's time to our's is interesting enough, and this site will help us to see more about it
First Published: September 3rd, 2008
Date: May 2011
I really enjoyed this site because it gave information about Aristotle via a "trio" of philosophers and scientists that played integral roles in not only what we know today, but the way scientists and philosophers would play roles in each other's work as well. This site gives information about Aristotle, Alexander, and even Socrates. Yet the majority you will read is about Aristotle, as this site is actually a lecture preparation page written by a professor from Virgina University.
Publishing date: April 11, 2001 (Updated: October 25, 2005)
Author: Unknown
This site is great for an in-depth look at the different areas that Aristotle taught and lectured about. There is a list of categories and it makes a great reference tool. This website is an organization's work all compiled to be used by students who are in need of research help regarding philosophy of all kinds. Many other philosophers are available to research on this site, including Aristotle's predecessors, Socrates and Plato.
Publishing date: November 21, 2007
Author: Dr. Allan Chapman
This is an informational video that is mostly about the biological findings of Aristotle as well as his contributions to science. It's not your average science video and will add a tinge of humor. The target audience for this video would be those looking for a laugh while trying to learn more about Aristotle's personality and his discoveries in the world of science.
Publishing date: 2006
Author: C.D. Merriman
Although this is a small page, it still has a lot of information on Aristotle. It includes pretty much all the basics, where he was born, where he was educated and even what he rebelled against. Also, there are other related links on this page to help you find out more information about Aristotle. I would say this is a fairly well written page and it's worth taking a peak at. The targeted audience here would be adults and advanced young adults.
Publishing date: June 9, 1996
Author: Ben Waggoner
This particular link had a broader horizon of information. Although short, it explained general information about when Aristotle was born, some of his accomplishments, his brief thoughts on earth science, and his contributions to science. There also was a short paragraph on Aristotle's work in zoology, and how he grouped together animals with similar characteristics in certain genres and then distinguished the species from the genetic classes. One particular piece of information I thought was very interesting was his belief that the universe never had a beginning and would never end.
Publishing date:Friday march 26, 2004.
Author: Henry Mendell
This site includes everything from the basic understanding of the structure of mathematical science, demonstrations of mathematics, and relations of science and mathematics. It uses visual examples and descriptive written information to help you come to an understanding about mathematics and how Aristotle used them. I recommend this page to anyone who needs extensive information about Aristotle's mathematics. The targeted audience would definitely be adults who have a high reading level.